468. Islamische FGM durch Ärztin in Michigan

Stoppt selbst die geringst invasive FGM

Die WHO-Klassifikation zur weiblichen Genitalberstümmelung (FGM) muss erhalten bleiben: Nein zu den Versuchen der Straffreistellung der Islamic FGM (Chitan al-inath, indones.: sunat perempuan), etwa der sogenannten milden Sunna, überall auf der Welt. Von Gabi Schmidt und Edward von Roy.

Ob als Prof. Karl-Peter Ringel mit Ass. Jur. Kathrin Meyer (§ 226a StGB – Sonderstraftatbestand der Frauenbeschneidung & verfassungswidrige Ungleichbehandlung (2014))[1] oder ob als Gutachterin zum 70. djt Prof. Dr. Tatjana Hörnle (Verhandlungen des 70. Deutschen Juristentages Hannover 2014 Bd. I: Gutachten Teil C: Kultur, Religion, Strafrecht – Neue Herausforderungen in einer pluralistischen Gesellschaft)[2], in immer neuen Wellen branden die Versuche der Aufweichung der WHO-Klassifikation[3] zur weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung (FGM) heran, die Versuche der Straffreistellung der irgendwie geringer invasiven Formen der Mädchenbeschneidung.

Hier haben Sozialpädagogen und Sozialarbeiter unzweideutig Stellung zu beziehen: Die Genitalbeschneidung muss global verboten bleiben bzw. werden, einerlei, ob der junge Mensch ein Mädchen ist oder ein Junge. Denn völlig altersentsprechend ist auch ein 12, vierzehn oder 16 Jahre alter junger Mensch nicht in der Lage, die Folgen der FGM oder MGM auf Gesundheit, Sexualität oder Partnerschaft abzuschätzen. Unabhängig davon kann auch eine Infektion nach einem Skalpellschnitt oder Nadelstich, kann auch die sogenannte milde Sunna zu schweren Komplikationen bis hin zum Tod führen. Deshalb: Keine Beschneidung unter achtzehn.[4]

Überall auf der Welt muss die Mädchenbeschneidung verboten werden und illegal bleiben und muss ein Zuwiderhandeln geahndet und bestraft werden, auch im amerikanischen Land der begrenzten Unmöglichkeiten.

In den Vereinigten Staaten haben sich im Vorjahr (2016) Dr. Kavita Shah Arora, beruflich tätig im Fachbereich Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe am MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio, und Dr. Allan Joel Jacobs, Professor für Fortpflanzungsmedizin an der Stony Brook Universität, im US-Bundesstaat New York, engagiert für das klitze- klitze-, klitzekleine Beschneiden des Geschlechtsorgans US-amerikanischer Mädchen ins Zeug gelegt (Female genital alteration: a compromise solution). Sie empfehlen eine Sichtweise und einen neuen Begriff: Statt, wie es die WHO-Klassifikation festlegt, rituelle weibliche Genitalbeschneidungen, auch die geringer invasiven, ausnahmslos als Verstümmelung (female genital mutilation, FGM) zu bezeichnen, sollen wir von Umgestaltung oder Veränderung sprechen, englisch alteration (female genital alteration, FGA).

Nicht die kinderfeindliche Praxis verbieten, sondern das störende Vokabular erneuern: Vom Verstümmeln zum Verändern. De minimis („um Kleinigkeiten“) behandelt das Rechtsprinzip, Bagatellen nicht den Tatbestand einer Norm erfüllen zu lassen, damit keiner gegen sie klagen kann. Leitsätze sind De minimis non curat lex („Das Recht kümmert sich nicht um Kleinigkeiten“) und De minimis non curat praetor („Der Strafrichter kümmert sich nicht um Kleinigkeiten“). Uns in Deutschland erinnert das an gewisse „rein symbolische Bagatellverletzungen“, die der Trierer Strafrechtsprofessor Prof. Dr. Mark Alexander Zöller offensichtlich straffrei gestellt wissen will (Die Strafbarkeit der Genitalverstümmelung als Gesetzessymbolik? In: Festschrift für Bernd Schünemann zum 70. Geburtstag am 1. November 2014; Mitherhausgeberin: Tatjana Hörnle).

„Zudem ist mit Blick auf die Wortwahl des Gesetzgebers erkennbar, dass es sich um negative Veränderungen von einigem Gewicht handeln muss. Damit scheiden rein symbolische Bagatellverletzungen, kosmetisch motivierte Eingriffe wie „Schönheitsoperationen“ im Genitalbereich oder dem Modebewusstsein entspringende Intimpiercings aus dem objektiven Tatbestand des § 226a StGB aus.″ (Mark A. Zöller, Seite 733)

Den beiden amerikanischen Legalisierern der Sunna-Mädchenbeschneidung Dr. Kavita Shah Arora und Dr. Allan Jacobs gehe es nicht etwa darum, am kindlichen Genital für eine religiös gebotene bzw. kulturadäquate klitzekleine Verstümmelung (genital mutilation, FGM) zu sorgen. Vielmehr soll eine elterlich gewünschte De-minimis-Veränderung (genital alteration, FGA) am Geschlechtsorgan des weiblichen Kindes möglich sein. Gravierende Formen von FGM pardon FGA, so legt es der Aufsatz (Female genital alteration: a compromise solution) nahe, solle der Rechtsstaat nach wie vor verhindern. Als Gesetzgeber, Arzt oder überhaupt als US-Bürger müsse man hingegen Verständnis dafür haben, dass „kulturelle und religiöse Verpflichtungen“ (cultural and religious obligations) nun einmal zu erfüllen seien.

Um den kulturellen Überzeugungen gerecht zu werden und gleichzeitig die körperliche Gesundheit der Mädchen zu schützen, schlagen wir eine Kompromisslösung vor, in der liberale Staaten diese De-minimis-FGA, in Anerkennung der Erfüllung kultureller und religiöser Verpflichtungen, rechtlich zulassen, hingegen jene Formen der FGA ächten, die gefährlich sind, weil sie signifikante sexuelle oder reproduktive Dysfunktionen verursachen. […]

liberale Regierungen sollten diese De-minimis-Verfahren ermöglichen, die schließlich nicht mehr Auswirkungen haben als andere kulturell akzeptierte Verfahren, wie sie bei Minderjährigen als ästhetische Verbesserung durchgeführt werden. Schließlich werden wir argumentieren, dass die Etikettierung dieser De-minimis-Verfahren als „Verstümmelung“ kulturell unsensibel ist, diskriminierend für die Frauen und dass sie keine Menschenrechtsverletzung darstellen. Dazu bieten wir eine abgestufte Argumentation und eine Kompromisslösung an […]

viele muslimische Gelehrte klassifizieren FGA als „Sunna“ oder Praxis, wie sie vom Propheten Muhammad begründet wurde. […]

wir alle müssen endlich eine nuanciertere Position einnehmen […]

Die [in den mädchenbeschneidenden Milieus] hier und da vorzufindende Kultur des Schweigens ist zurückzuführen auf ein Misstrauen gegenüber den globalen Anti-FGA-Kampagnen, die als „sensationsgierig, ethnozentrisch, rassistisch, kulturell unsensibel und unzulässig vereinfachend“ wahrgenommen werden.[5]

Michigan 2017, offensichtlich erstmals in der Geschichte der USA befasst sich der Strafprozess um die hauptberufliche Notärztin und klandestine Ritualbeschneiderin Dr. Jumana F. Nagarwala (United States of America v. JUMANA NAGARWALA) mit dem bestehenden Verbot der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung 18 USC 116 (female genital mutilation).[6]

Mindestens schafiitisch (Fiqh nach Imam asch-Schafii), möglicherweise auch hanbalitisch schreibt der sunnitische Islam die weibliche Genitalverstümmelung als zwingende religiöse Pflicht vor (wāǧib (واجب), wadschib, anglisiert wajib; Synonym: farḍ (فرض), zu: farīḍa, Religionspflicht).[7] Die islamische Mädchenbeschneidung heißt Chitan al-inath, ḫitān al-ināṯ (ختان الإناث) oder Chatna (ختنة) ḫatna, indonesisch und malaiisch: sunat perempuan bzw. sunat pada wanita, ferner sagt man ḫifāḍ bzw. ḫafḍ, wörtl. Einsenken oder Herabtiefen, oder auch: ḫitān al-banāt, wörtlich Beschneidung der Töchter oder der Mädchen ((البنات), Tochter ist bint (بنت). Doch gibt Islamic FGM auch bei manchen Schiiten, beispielsweise bei der eher kleinen Strömung der siebener-schiitischen Dawudi Bohra (anglis. Dawoodi Bohra), das sind etwa eine Million Menschen hauptsächlich in der westlichen indischen Provinz Gujarat und der pakistanischen Stadt Karatschi, ferner in Nairobi und Mombasa, Kenia, auf Bali in Indonesien sowie in Australien und den USA.[8] Zum Vergleich: in Indonesien leben 260 Millionen Menschen, davon 225 Millionen überwiegend vom Fiqh nach Imam asch-Schafii geprägte Muslime. Auch die Kurden, soweit sunnitisch, folgen der schafiitischen Madhhab und entsprechend kennt Kurdistan die islamisch begründete weibliche Genitalverstümmelung. Und während nur die Schafiiten gleichsam zwischen Jungen und Mädchen nicht unterscheiden und männliche wie weibliche Beschneidung zur religiösen Pflicht erklären,[9] so befürworten alle vier sunnitischen Rechtsschulen die Beschneidung von Frauen; den Malikiten gilt die FGM als Prophetentradition (Sunna) und damit als empfehlenswert, für die Hanafiten wie auch für manche Hanbaliten ist sie edel, ehrenwert (makruma; honourable action, meritorious, noble deed).[10]

Die 44-jährige Dr. Jumana Nagarwala, eine US-amerikanische Muslima und Angehörige der schiitischen Strömung der Dawudi Bohra, arbeitet als Notärztin am Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Bundesstaat Michigan, USA. Nicht an ihrem Arbeitsplatz, sondern an einer Klinik im benachbarten Livonia (Michigan), so der strafrechtliche Vorwurf, soll sie die Geschlechtsorgane zweier etwa sieben Jahre alter Mädchen aus rituellen Gründen verletzt haben. Was genau im Februar dieses Jahres die Medizinerin aus Northville, Michigan, den beiden Siebenjährigen aus dem US-Staat Minnesota am Geschlechtsteil eingestochen, eingeschnitten oder abgeschnitten hat, ist Gegenstand der Ermittlungen, es könnte sich unter anderem auch um eine FGM Typ II handeln,[11] das bedeutet Schamlippen(teil)amputation, sowie eine Verletzung der Klitorisvorhaut. Bei Inzision (Einscheiden) der Klitorisvorhaut wäre das eine FGM Typ IV, bei Amputation von Gewebe eine FGM Typ Ia. Einige Beschneider, auch Beschneiderinnen, sollen in der Lage sein, derartig geschickt und damit ohne spätere Narbenbildung zu arbeiten, dass man die FGM Typ Ib Amputation oder Teilamputation der Klitoris nicht auf den ersten Blick erkennen kann.[12]

Man mache sich nichts vor, die FGM, auch die islamische, zielt nicht auf irgendein relativ wenig beschädigendes Pieksen oder Hauteinritzen, sondern ist der Angriff auf das Zentrum der sexuellen Lust, die Klitoris, arabisch baẓr (بظر). Man falle daher nicht auf den Nebelwurf der globalen Bewegung für immer mehr Schariagesetze herein, die sich auf den amerikanischen Sufischeich Nuh Ha Mim Keller beruft. In seiner kommentierten Übersetzung des Hauptwerks des schafiitischen Rechts (Reliance of the Traveller) gab Keller baẓr falsch wieder mit Klitorisvorhaut: „nicht die Klitoris, wie gelegentlich fälschlich angenommen wird“ (not the clitoris itself, as some mistakenly assert). Nach Keller also ziele Allahs Rede (Koran) und Mohammeds Befehl (Sunna) lediglich auf die (Teil)Ampution der Klitorisvorhaut und lasse die Klitoris in jedem Fall unangetastet. Der einen Beschneidungsbefehl (FGM) von Imam asch-Schafii (schafiitischer Fiqh) und Imam ibn Hanbal (hanbalitisch) begeistert weiterreichende sowie die gesundheitlichen Vorteile und die himmlische Weisheit der Mädchenbeschneidung nach FGM Typ Ib bewerbende Assif Hussein (Female Circumcision – The Hidden Truth) behauptet ebenfalls, dass die Scharia den unbedingten Schutz der Kitzlers gewährleisten.[13] Die Scheiche und Muftis denken gar nicht daran, eine FGM Typ Ib als Verstoß gegen die Scharia zu definieren. Eine Ausnahme ist der hanafitische Scheich Faraz Rabbani, ein Schüler von Nuh Ha Mm Keller.[14]

Die autoritativen islamischen Texte geben das Wort Klitorisvorhaut nicht her, baẓr ist und bleibt die Klitoris. Bis heute hat uns der amerikanische Sufischeich und Übersetzer des schafiitischen Rechtskompendiums Das Vertrauen des Reisenden und Rüstzeug des Anbetenden, Autor Shihabuddin Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn an-Naqib al-Misri (1302–1367; ʿUmdat as-Sālik wa ʿUddat al-Nāsik, engl.: Reliance of the Traveller and Tools of the Worshipper) kein arabisches Wort für Klitorisvorhaut nennen können.

Die Herrschaften Nagarwala (2017), Arora und Jacobs (2016), Hörnle (Herbst 2014) sowie Ringel und Meyer (Frühjahr 2014) wissen nicht oder verschweigen, dass es auch islamrechtlich nicht beim Wegschneiden der Klitorisvorhaut bleiben wird, sondern dass, wie schon in vorislamischer Zeit, selbstverständlich das weibliche Zentrum der Lust amputiert oder teilamputiert werden kann, die arabisch baẓr (Mehrzahl buẓūr) zu nennende Klitoris. Eines Tages begegnete Mohammed der zum Islam konvertierten muqaṭṭiʿatu l-buẓūr (amputatrice di clitoridi, coupeuse de clitoris, cutter of clitorises), der Frauenbeschneiderin Umm ʿAṭiyya. Die Gottgehorsame befragte den Propheten nach der religiösen Rechtmäßigkeit ihrer täglichen Arbeit und Allahs Sprecher stellte fest:

أشمِّي ولا تنهَكي

ašimmī wa-lā tanhakī

[Cut] slightly and do not overdo it

[Schneide] leicht und übertreibe nicht

Oder Mohammed verkündete den Willen des Himmels so:

اختفضن ولا تنهكن

iḫtafiḍna wa-lā tanhikna

Cut [slightly] without exaggeration

Schneide [leicht] und ohne Übertreibung

Seither ist das dem kleinen Mädchen zu amputierende Quantum und Volumen an Genitalgewebe, vielfältig und flexibel, als Viertel eines Reiskorns, als Guavensamen, Bohne, Blattspitze, Nadelkopf (the size of a nail clipping, a quarter-grain of rice, a guava seed, a bean, the tip of a leaf, or the head of a needle) definiert worden oder als Hahnenkamm (the crest of a rooster), wobei überirdisch verschwommen bleibt, ob die sogenannte Bohne oder dergleichen jetzt aus der Schamlippe, aus der Klitorisvorhaut oder aber aus der Klitoris herausgeschnitten werden muss und schon eher gesichert ist, dass jede somalische, kurdische oder indonesische Beschneiderin von Zeit zu Zeit sehr üppige Bohnen sowie ausgesprochen fleischige Hahnenkämme zwischen ihren Fingerspitzen dreht.

Fassen wir die bisherigen Ereignisse aus Detroit bzw. Livonia zusammen: Ob Dr. Jumana F. Nagarwala, die Notärztin und Muslima aus der schiitischen (Tayyibi-Ismailiten) Strömung der Dawudi Bohra, eine islamische weibliche Beschneidung sprich weibliche Genitalverstümmelung (Chatna, Chitan al-inath, in Indonesien und Malaysia: sunat perempuan, sunat pada wanita) FGM Typ IV (Einstechen oder Einschneiden usw.) oder FGM Typ Ia (Klitorisvorhaut(teil)amputation) oder eine Genitalverstümmelung aus dem Bereich FGM Typ II (Schamlippen(teil)amputation) durchgeführt hat, wird ermittelt.

Werden wir nun grundsätzlicher. Ob der junge Mensch weiblich ist oder männlich: Erst der Erwachsene, der Mensch ab 18 Jahre, kann die Folgen einer rituellen Genitaloperation abschätzen. Minderjährige, 17 Jahre alt und jünger, sind deshalb vor jeder HGM, das ist FGM oder MGM, zu bewahren.

Schluss mit dem Verhandeln um die rechte Altersgrenze des Einwilligens (age of consent), Schluss mit dem Gerede von der genitalen Selbstbestimmung des Kindes oder Jugendlichen. Ob Mädchen oder Junge: keine Beschneidung unter achtzehn!

Drei Themenkreise überlagern, verzahnen sich. Ob wir über religiöse Genitalbeschneidungen, über Päderastie oder über das Ehe- bzw. Personenstandsrecht reden bzw. diesbezüglich Gesetze schaffen, „genital autonomy“ ist auf das Engste verbunden mit dem – sehr islamischen – Anspruch beispielsweise auf Verheiratung des neunjährigen Mädchens.[15]

Deshalb sollten sich Intaktivisten und andere Kinderschützer zur Altersgrenze 18 Jahre bekennen, unterhalb von der es 1. keine Einvernehmlichkeit sexueller Handlungen mit Erwachsenen, 2. keine Ehemündigkeit und 3., ob als Mädchen oder Junge, keinen eigenen Beschneidungswunsch geben darf; die entsprechenden Gesetze sind auf den Weg zu bringen.

Denn ernsthaft gemeinter Intaktivismus, bittesehr, der Name sagt es doch, bedeutet: Unversehrtheit des Körpers, insbesondere des Geschlechtsorgans, und integriert in keiner Weise das rituelle Genitalverstümmeln, weder auf Elternwunsch noch auf Kindeswunsch.

Gabi Schmidt und Edward von Roy

Q u e l l e n

[1] Zu Prof. Karl-Peter Ringel mit Ass. Jur. Kathrin Meyer (§ 226a StGB – Sonderstraftatbestand der Frauenbeschneidung & verfassungswidrige Ungleichbehandlung (2014))

Zwei Wegbereiter deutscher Mädchenbescheidung | Von Edward von Roy

https://schariagegner.wordpress.com/2014/09/14/prof-dr-ringel-empfiehlt-dem-gesetzgeber-die-fgm-typ-ia-und-iv-milde-sunna/

[2] Zur Gutachterin auf dem 70. djt Prof. Dr. Tatjana Hörnle (Verhandlungen des 70. Deutschen Juristentages Hannover 2014 Bd. I: Gutachten Teil C: Kultur, Religion, Strafrecht – Neue Herausforderungen in einer pluralistischen Gesellschaft)

Entgegnung auf die Richtigstellung der Tatjana Hörnle | Von Edward von Roy und Gabi Schmidt am 16.09.2014.

https://schariagegner.wordpress.com/2014/09/17/kommentar-zu-tatjana-hoernles-richtigstellung-zum-artikel-im-berliner-kurier/

[3] WHO-Klassifikation zur weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung (FGM)

Female genital mutilation : a joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA statement

Les Mutilations sexuelles féminines : déclaration commune OMS/UNICEF/FNUAP

http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/41903/1/9241561866.pdf

WHO | Eliminating female genital mutilation

Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency statement – OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO.

http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43839/1/9789241596442_eng.pdf

Mehr als 200 Millionen von FGM betroffene Mädchen und Frauen. Die endlich nach oben korrigierten Zahlen nach Einbeziehung von Indonesien (schafiitische Rechtsschule des sunnitischen Islam).

200 million girls and women living with FGM: UNICEF | Daily Mail Online 05.02.2016

The new global figure on FGM includes nearly 70 million more girls and women than the last estimate for 2014, largely due to new data provided by Indonesia and population growth in some countries.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3432762/200-million-girls-women-living-FGM-UNICEF.html

05.02.2016 – NEW YORK, 5 February 2016 – At least 200 million girls and women […]

https://www.unicef.org/media/media_90033.html

[4] Europa 25 Jahre nach dem First International Symposium on Circumcision. Genital Intactness statt Beschneidung auf Kinderwunsch

Vortragsskript von Edward von Roy

Köln 14. Februar 2014

https://schariagegner.wordpress.com/2014/02/14/keine-beschneidung-unter-achtzehn/

[5] Female genital alteration: a compromise solution

Kavita Shah Arora, Allan J Jacobs

To accommodate cultural beliefs while protecting the physical health of girls, we propose a compromise solution in which liberal states would legally permit de minimis FGA in recognition of its fulfilment of cultural and religious obligations, but would proscribe those forms of FGA that are dangerous or that produce significant sexual or reproductive dysfunction. […]

liberal governments should tolerate de minimis procedures with no more effect than other accepted procedures performed on minors for aesthetic enhancement. Finally, we will argue that labelling these de minimis procedures as ‘mutilation’ is culturally insensitive and discriminatory towards women, and that they do not constitute a human rights violation. In doing so, we offer a tiered argument and compromise solution […]

many Muslim scholars classify FGA as ‘Sunnah’ or practice established by the prophet Muhammad. […]

we must adopt a more nuanced position […]

his local culture of silence is due to a distrust of the global eradication campaigns as being ‘sensationalized, ethnocentric, racist, culturally insensitive and simplistic’.

http://jme.bmj.com/content/42/3/148

Arora und Jacobs Ruth bedanken sich für Unterstützung durch Ruth Macklin und Arianne Shahvisi:

Particularly, we wish to acknowledge Professor Macklin’s view that sanctioning de minimis FGA would constitute a harm reduction strategy that cannot reasonably be considered a human rights violation. We also recognise that Professor Shahvisi’s hypothesis of a ritual vulvar nick in a clean environment and performed by a trained provider as ethically appropriate indeed is within the scope of our category 1 procedures.

Harm reduction and female genital alteration: a response to the commentaries. By Kavita Shah Arora, Allan Joel Jacobs.

http://jme.bmj.com/content/42/3/164

Cutting slack and cutting corners: an ethical and pragmatic response to Arora and Jacobs’ ‘Female genital alteration: a compromise solution’

Sanctioning a form of FGA that seeks to minimise if not eliminate harm to infants, adolescents and adult women, and at the same time show respect for cultural traditions appears to make good sense. In arguing for a de minimis procedure, the authors contend that any harm would be equivalent to that of male circumcision, a practice that is permitted by countries that have made FGA illegal. They are correct in saying that in a de minimis form, FGA could not reasonably be considered a human rights violation.

Not all cultural traditions deserve respect | By: Ruth Macklin

http://jme.bmj.com/content/42/3/155

Cutting slack and cutting corners: an ethical and pragmatic response to Arora and Jacobs’ ‘Female genital alteration: a compromise solution’ | By: Arianne Shahvisi

http://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2016/02/19/medethics-2015-103206?sid=da36f4ac-a294-400f-9088-a450e78ca416&utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=J_Med_Ethics_TrendMD-0

Beim Reden über das Einwilligen (consent) sollte die an der Brighton & Sussex Medical School zu den Themen Bioethik, Theorie des Feminismus und FGM forschende kurdischstämmige Britin Dr. Arianne Shahvisi das Mindestalter 18 Jahre fordern, um das Genital des weiblichen oder männlichen Minderjährigen kompromisslos vor jeder rituellen Operation zu schützen.

According to Arianne Shahvisi of the University of Sussex ethics department in Britain: „One must not cause irreversible changes to the body of another person without their consent.“

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3459336/Doctors-urge-compromise-female-genital-cutting.html

„Rites of passage are important to all of us, but one must not cause irreversible changes to the body of another person without their consent.“

(Dr Arianne Shahvisi, at the University of Sussex.)

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3459178/FGM-akin-male-circumcision-breast-implants-designer-vagina-ops-Gynecologists-argue-genital-nicks-don-t-harm-girls-legalized.html

Kavita Shah Arora and Allan J Jacobs in their paper have compared FGM, which is considered a violation of child rights by UNICEF, with male circumcision. Jacobs is the director of gynecologic oncology at Coney Island Hospital and teaches bioethics at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York. Arora is an assistant professor of reproductive biology and bioethics at Case Western Reserve University.

“In liberal societies that accept male circumcision, room for discussion surrounding the acceptability of FGA exists,” the paper, published in the Journal of Medical Ethics by British Medical Journal, says.

The authors say that a small surgical nick or a minimalistic procedure that alters the appearance of a girl’s genitalia should be allowed as a compromise to the issue of FGM.

Less severe forms of genital alteration should be tolerated, say American doctors | By: Priyanka Vora | Hindustan Times 24.02.2016

http://www.hindustantimes.com/mumbai/less-severe-forms-of-genital-alteration-should-be-tolerated-say-american-doctors/story-emb8VSj0CrFelAufo8IEvI.html

[6] Michigan 2017, Strafprozess: United States of America v. JUMANA NAGARWALA, zum bestehenden US-amerikanischen Verbot der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung gemäß 18 USC § 116 (female genital mutilation).

Detroit Emergency Room Doctor Arrested and Charged with Performing Female Genital Mutilation

https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/detroit-emergency-room-doctor-arrested-and-charged-performing-female-genital-mutilation

Criminal Complaint

https://www.justice.gov/opa/press-release/file/957381/download

Detroit — A Detroit emergency room physician was charged Wednesday with mutilating the genitalia of two 7-year-old girls in what is believed to be the first case of its kind brought under federal law.

Jumana Nagarwala of Northville was charged with female genital mutilation […]

Detroit physician charged with mutilating girls’ genitalia | By Robert Snell | The Detroit News 13./14.04.2017

http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/detroit-city/2017/04/13/doctor-charged-genital-mutilation/100416734/

Michigan Doctor Is Accused of Genital Cutting of 2 Girls | By Jacey Fortinapril | The New York Times 13.04.2017

[…] Dr. Nagarwala, who practices emergency medicine at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit […] The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide, more than 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone some form of genital cutting. […]

[ 200 Millionen wurde die – endlich korrekte – Zahl mit Berücksichtigung der FGM in Indonesien und Malaysia, nämlich unter Einbeziehung der schafiitischen, der sunnitisch-islamischen Chitan al-inath / sunat perempuan (FGM). ]

A Detroit doctor accused of performing genital mutilations on two seven-year-old Minnesota girls has been charged.

Cops say Dr. Jumana Nagarwala, 44, was identified by the two girls as the person who performed the barbaric procedures on them at a suburban clinic in February.

Their mothers took them to Nagarwala for the procedures, the FBI said. […]

FBI agents have also identified other children who may have suffered at the doctor’s hands between 2005 and 2007.

The accused remains in jail awaiting a hearing Monday.

Meanwhile, Muslim leaders in Minneapolis are outraged over a man patrolling a Somali neighbourhood enforcing the Islamic civil code.

Abdullah Rashid has been telling residents not to drink, use drugs or interact with the opposite sex, according to his interpretation of Sharia law, the Star Tribune reported Thursday.

Detroit doc allegedly mutilated girls‘ genitals | By Brad Hunter | Toronto Sun 13.04.2017

http://www.torontosun.com/2017/04/13/detroit-doc-allegedly-mutilated-girls-genitals

Der FGM-Fall mit Ritualbeschneiderin Nagarwala: mindestens auch eine FGM Typ II

[…] Jumana Nagarwala, 44, was also charged with „transportation with intent to engage in criminal sexual activity“ — a reference to FGM — and making false statements to a federal officer.

The criminal complaint says federal agents documented that two girls were transported by two women across state lines to a medical clinic in Livonia, Mich. Documents show Nagarwala is not employed at this clinic nor is there any record of her billings there.

The children were told it was a „’special‘ girls trip,“ according to court documents. The first victim told federal agents that she underwent a procedure „to get the germs out“ of her, and she identified Nagarwala in a photograph as the doctor who performed the operation. A medical examination performed under a search warrant found that her „labia minora has been altered or removed, and her clitoral hood is also abnormal in appearance.“ […]

The New York Times reports that she has been placed on administrative leave from Detroit’s Henry Ford Hospital, according to David Olejarz, a spokesman for the Henry Ford Health System.

Michigan Doctor Charged With Performing Female Genital Mutilation On Girls | By Merrit Kennedy | The Two-Way (NPR, ehemals National Public Radio) 14.04.2017

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/04/14/523917425/michigan-doctor-charged-with-performing-female-genital-mutilation-on-girls

Livonia doctor charged with female genital mutilation of children

http://www.fox2detroit.com/news/local-news/248511465-story

Nagarwala, a U.S. citizen who also speaks Gujarati, a language spoken in western India

https://scallywagandvagabond.com/2017/04/dr-jumana-nagarwala-charged-female-genital-mutilation-young-girls/

Gujarati Muslims

Many of these early merchants were Ismaili Shia, both Mustaali and Nizari. They laid the foundation of the Bohra and Khoja communities.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarati_Muslims

Dr Nagarwala, who belongs to the Dawoodi Bohra community,

https://scroll.in/latest/834623/us-doctor-of-indian-origin-arrested-for-allegedly-performing-female-genital-cutting-on-minors

[7] Genitalverstümmelung an Frauen ist auch im größten muslimischen Staat der Erde eine Alltäglichkeit. Zur islamischen FGM Indonesiens. Von Jacques Auvergne (2007).

https://schariagegner.wordpress.com/2008/01/20/indonesien-genitalverstuemmelung-an-muslimischen-maedchen/

Die Al-Azhar und das weibliche Genital. Von Jacques Auvergne (2009).

[…] Den Bürgern Europas gegenüber streiten muslimische Geistliche und streiten vor allem nichtmuslimische xenophile Islamfreunde gerne ab, dass FGM (female genital mutilation, Frauenbeschneidung) irgend etwas mit dem Islam zu tun habe. Auszüge aus einer Fernsehdebatte zum Thema der weiblichen Beschneidung in Ägypten.

Ausgestrahlt wurde das Interview über den kuwaitischen Fernsehsender Al-Rai TV am 28. März 2006. Quelle MEMRI-TV, deutsch von Jacques Auvergne, 9. Juni 2008, es unterhalten sich Dr. Muhammad Wahdan, Dozent an der Kairoer Al-Azhar-„Universität“ und die Dozentin für Islamisches Religiöses Recht Dr. Malika Zarrar.

Zarrar ist grundsätzliche Gegnerin jeder Form von Frauenbeschneidung. Der Islam-Experte von der so genannten Universität Al-Azhar, die immerhin als die höchste Autorität des sunnitischen Islam gilt, hat eine „differenziertere“ Meinung: Wahdan will die FGM, Wahdan will die Teilamputation der Klitoris für alle Mädchen, die sie benötigen, nicht aber für die, die sie nicht benötigen.

https://schariagegner.wordpress.com/2008/06/09/islam-und-fgm/

Kein Islam ohne FGM. Von Jacques Auvergne (2016).

[…] In diesen Wochen plant Ägypten eine Strafverschärfung in Bezug auf diesen Chitan al-inath (ḫitān al-ināṯ, ختان الإناث; auch: ḫitān al-banāt, wörtl. Beschneidung der Töchter; Tochter ist bint), in Bezug auf die weibliche Genitalverstümmelung. Der Staat würde die FGM dann, statt lediglich als Vergehen, als ein Verbrechen bewerten. Soweit so vernünftig. Nebenbei: Beschneidung, v. a. Jungenbeschneidung, ist chitan, ḫitān (ختان)‎‎, oder chatna, ḫatna (ختنة)‎‎, die Intaktheit des männlichen Genitals ist nicht weniger zu schützen als die weibliche. Wir meinen den wissenschaftlichen Begriff von körperlicher Unversehrtheit, aus islamischer Sicht freilich macht erst der Chitan das Geschlechtsorgan intakt. Ohne MGM bzw. FGM kein Kindeswohl, das ist die Maßgabe von Schöpfungsordnung (Scharia) und islamischer Normativität bzw. Gesetzlichkeit (auch Scharia).

Dann im Parlament der kleine Eklat. Der ägyptische Abgeordnete und Arzt Dr. Ahmad al-Tahawi (أحمد الطحاوى) ist Mitglied im parlamentarischen Gesundheitsausschuss. Sich auf seine ärztliche Qualifikation berufend, nennt al-Tahawi die Mädchenbeschneidung, und sei es für seine eigenen Töchter, islamisch geboten und medizinisch erforderlich („religiös und medizinisch“,دينياً و طبياً). Unfair, unbillig, ungerecht zu handeln sprich zuviel Genitalgewebe wegzuschneiden sei gewiss falsch, das Mädchen unbeschnitten zu lassen sei aber auch falsch. Aber ja doch, wo es gelte, sich zwischen Religion und Wissenschaft zu entscheiden, bevorzuge man den Glauben: „Wir folgen den Männern der Religion.“

https://schariagegner.wordpress.com/2016/07/30/das-maerchen-vom-verbot-der-fgm/

[8] Dawoodi Bohra (داؤدی بوہرہ)

The main language of the community is „Lisan ud-Dawat“, a dialect of Gujarati with inclusions from Arabic, Urdu and other languages.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawoodi_Bohra

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawudi_Bohras

FGM bei den Dawudi Bohra

Female circumcision anger aired in India | The community’s insistence on “Khatna” (the excision of the clitoris) also sets it apart from others on the subcontinent | AFP 23.04.2012

https://www.dawn.com/news/712748/female-circumcision-anger-aired-in-india-fm

Australia’s first female genital mutilation trial: how a bright young girl convinced a jury | By Bridie Jabour | The Guardian 13.11.2015

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/nov/13/female-genital-mutilation-trial-young-girl-convinced-jury-australia

Three sentenced to 15 months in landmark female genital mutilation trial | By Michael Safi | The Guardian 18.03.2016

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/mar/18/three-sentenced-to-15-months-in-landmark-female-genital-mutilation-trial

[9] „Circumcision is obligatory upon men and women according to us.“ (Die Beschneidung bei Männern und Frauen ist unserer Auffassung nach verbindlich vorgeschrieben.)

http://www.ezw-berlin.de/html/15_2592.php

Circumcision is obligatory upon men and women according to us (i.e. the Shafi’is). (Majmu’ of Imam An-Nawawi 1:164) The circumcision is wajib upon men and women according to the rājih qawl of Shāfiʿī madhhab. […]

Answered by: Sidi Abdullah Muḥammad al-Marbūqī al-Shāfiʿī

Checked by: Al-Ustāż Fauzi ibn Abd Rahman

[ Shafii Fiqh – siehe aber: „Rulings from your site regarding female circumcision appear to have been taken down.“ ]

http://www.shafiifiqh.com/what-is-the-ruling-on-circumcision-for-women/

The official position of the Shafi’i School is that it is obligatory for a woman. […]

Answered by: Shaykh Yaqub Abdurrahman

http://www.shafiifiqh.com/question-details.aspx?qstID=173

[10] Islam Question and Answer, General Supervisor: Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid. Fatwa.

60314: Circumcision of girls and some doctors’ criticism thereof

[…] Circumcision is one of the Sunnahs of the fitrah, and it is for both males and females, except that is it obligatory for males and Sunnah and good in the case of women. End quote […]

In the fatwa of Shaykh ‘Atiyah Saqar – the former heard of the Fatwa Committee in al-Azhar – it says:

The calls which urge the banning of female circumcision are call that go against Islam, because there is no clear text in the Qur’an or Sunna and there is no opinion of the fuqaha’ that says that female circumcision is haraam. Female circumcision is either obligatory or recommended. […]

https://islamqa.info/en/60314

45528: Medical benefits of female circumcision

https://islamqa.info/en/45528

The official position of the Shafi’i School is that it is obligatory for a woman. There is also a weaker opinion that Imam Nawawi [an-Nawawī, 1233 bis 1277] relates in Rauda [Kitāb ar-Rauḍa] 10/180 that it is recommended. This is the opinion maintained by other scholars who considered that it is recommended or simply a noble deed, like Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik.

by: Shaykh Yaqub Abdurrahman

http://www.shafiifiqh.com/question-details.aspx?qstID=173

To mutilate in the name of Jehovah or Allah: legitimization of male and female circumcision.

Sami A. ALDEEB ABU-SAHLIEH. Med Law. 1994;13(7-8):575-622, July 1994.

Female circumcison is practised in Sudan, Somalia, Egypt and a few other Arab and Muslim countries. It has triggered a passionate public debate in the West. This debate has found somewhat of an echo in the Arab and Muslim world, but some Muslim religious circles such as Al-Azhar (Egypt), the most important Islamic centre in the world, try to justify it on the basis of sunna (that is, to conform with the tradition of the prophet Mohammed).

http://www.cirp.org/library/cultural/aldeeb1/

No distinction between male and female circumcision

Sami A. ALDEEB ABU-SAHLIEH. Med Ethics. 1995 Oct;21(5):311.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1376781/

(Fatwa)

Islam Question and Answer

General Supervisor: Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid

45528: Medical benefits of female circumcision

(Question)

Could you explain me what is the medical benefit of girl’s circumcision?

(Answer)

[…] Female circumcision has not been prescribed for no reason, rather there is wisdom behind it and it brings many benefits.

Mentioning some of these benefits, Dr. Haamid al-Ghawaabi says:

The secretions of the labia minora accumulate in uncircumcised women and turn rancid, so they develop an unpleasant odour which may lead to infections of the vagina or urethra. I have seen many cases of sickness caused by the lack of circumcision.

Circumcision reduces excessive sensitivity of the clitoris which may cause it to increase in size to 3 centimeters when aroused, which is very annoying to the husband, especially at the time of intercourse.

Another benefit of circumcision is that it prevents stimulation of the clitoris which makes it grow large in such a manner that it causes pain.

Circumcision prevents spasms of the clitoris which are a kind of inflammation.

Circumcision reduces excessive sexual desire.

[…]

The female gynaecologist Sitt al-Banaat Khaalid says in an article entitled Khitaan al-Banaat Ru’yah Sihhiyyah (Female circumcision from a health point of view):

For us in the Muslim world female circumcision is, above all else, obedience to Islam, which means acting in accordance with the fitrah and following the Sunnah which encourages it. We all know the dimensions of Islam, and that everything in it must be good in all aspects, including health aspects. If the benefits are not apparent now, they will become known in the future, as has happened with regard to male circumcision – the world now knows its benefits and it has become widespread among all nations despite the opposition of some groups.

Then she mentioned some of the health benefits of female circumcision and said:

It takes away excessive libido from women

It prevents unpleasant odours which result from foul secretions beneath the prepuce.

It reduces the incidence of urinary tract infections

It reduces the incidence of infections of the reproductive system.

In the book on Traditions that affect the health of women and children, which was published by the World Health Organization in 1979 it says:

With regard to the type of female circumcision which involves removal of the prepuce of the clitoris, which is similar to male circumcision, no harmful health effects have been noted.

And Allaah knows best.

https://islamqa.info/en/45528

I’m against the complete removal of the clitoris. I’m totally against this, because it is forbidden and does not please Allah.

Clip No. 1090 Egyptian Experts on Islamic Religious Law Debate Female Circumcision | MEMRI The Middle East Media Research Institute | 27.03.2006

https://www.memri.org/tv/egyptian-experts-islamic-religious-law-debate-female-circumcision/transcript

Clip No. 1090

Egyptian Experts on Islamic Religious Law Debate Female Circumcision

27.03.2006

Following are excerpts from a debate on female circumcision in Egypt. Al-Azhar University lecturer Dr. Muhammad Wahdan and lecturer on Islamic religious law Dr. Malika Zarrar participated in the debate, which aired on the Kuwaiti Al-Rai TV on March 28, 2006.

https://www.memri.org/tv/egyptian-experts-islamic-religious-law-debate-female-circumcision

The issue of female circumcision is very contentious. Note first that the above translation of the Manual of Shafi’i jurisprudence (fiqh) provided by Nuh Ha Mim Keller is not correct, since what the Arabic actually says is:

„Circumcision is obligatory (for every male and female) by cutting off the piece of skin on the glans of the penis of the male, but circumcision of the female is by cutting out the clitoris (this is called KhifaaD).“

http://answering-islam.org/Index/C/circumcision.html

[11] FGM-Fall und Ritualbeschneiderin Nagarwala: Offensichtlich mindestens auch eine FGM Typ II.

A medical examination performed under a search warrant found that her „labia minora has been altered or removed, and her clitoral hood is also abnormal in appearance.“

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/04/14/523917425/michigan-doctor-charged-with-performing-female-genital-mutilation-on-girls

According to court documents, when the girl arrived, her labia minora, the flaps on either side of the vaginal opening, was removed. Her clitoral hood was also damaged, according to the criminal complaint.

Michigan doctor accused of performing genital mutilation on young girls is denied bail | By Caroline Modarressy-Tehrani | VICE News 17.04.2017

https://news.vice.com/story/michigan-doctor-jumana-nagarwala-accused-of-performing-genital-mutilation-on-young-girls-denied-bail

[12] Islamisch-innovativ ist … FGM Typ I narbenfrei.

The injury had healed with no obvious scarring to either. The crown prosecutor later explained to the court this was because KM had perfected a technique that left no scarring.

Australia’s first female genital mutilation trial: how a bright young girl convinced a jury | By Bridie Jabour | The Guardian 13.11.2015

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/nov/13/female-genital-mutilation-trial-young-girl-convinced-jury-australia

Both girls were aged seven at the time of the FGM, which was classed as either type one or type four, involving the cutting or partial removal of their clitorises without leaving a scar.

By: Michael Safi | The Guardian 18.03.2016

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/mar/18/three-sentenced-to-15-months-in-landmark-female-genital-mutilation-trial

[13] Asiff Hussain

Female Circumcision – The Hidden Truth · How Misogynists and Feminists are feeding upon each other to denigrate an Islamic practice that brings untold benefits to women

http://asiffhussein.com/2015/04/02/female-circumcision-the-hidden-truth/

http://sailanmuslim.com/news/female-circumcision-the-hidden-truth-by-asiff-hussein/

Asiff Hussein […] serves as Head of Outreach of the Centre for Islamic Studies (CIS) […] He also served as Editor-in-Chief of Islamic Finance Today, a magazine exclusively dedicated to the promotion of ethical interest-free banking and finance from 2006-2016. He presently serves as Editor-in-Chief of Wahed Invest Islamic Finance Blog. […] He is an Alumnus of the International Visitor Leadership Programme organised by the US State Department, having participated in an IVLP Programme on Religion and Social Justice in America on a tour that covered Washington, Huntsville, Birmingham, Santa Fe and San Francisco from June 28th to July 16th 2010.

http://asiffhussein.com/about-asiff-hussein/

Asiff Hussain wurde in Südostasien bereits 2006 gelesen …

https://dkmfahutan.wordpress.com/2006/09/12/khitan-wanita/

… sowie 2015 in Sri Lanka.

http://www.anvermanatunga.net/english/female-circumcision-the-hidden-truth-by-asiff-hussein/

sunna circumcision involving minor cutting of the clitoris

http://www.religioustolerance.org/fem_cirm.htm

[14] Der hanafitische Scheich Faraz Rabbani ist Schüler u. a. von Nuh Ha Mim Keller.

Anyways, Shaykh Faraz is someone who has studied under Shaykh Nuh (I’m not sure if you’ve heard of Sunnipath??). This is an answer from Sunnipath.

https://muslihoon.wordpress.com/2006/08/18/a-startling-and-uncomfortable-discovery-in-islamic-shariah/

Shaykh Faraz Rabbani […] is a student of Shaykh Nuh Keller and teaches Hanafi fiqh and other subjects in Amman.

http://islamqa.org/hanafi/qibla-hanafi/42880

[15] The answer to your question may be found in the ahaadeeth of Sahih al-Bukhari and the commentary of al-Hafiz al-‘Asqallani, which are quoted below:

‘A’isha (…) said: „The Prophet (…) married me when I was six years old. Then we came to Madina and stayed in Bani al-Harith ibn Khazraj. I fell ill and my hair started to fall out (due to the illness; then it grew back thick again). My mother Umm Ruman came to me whilst I was on a swing and my friends were with me. She shouted for me and I came to her, not knowing what she wanted. She took me by the hand and led me to the door of the house. I was out of breath and we waited until I had calmed down, then she took some water and wiped my face and head, then took me inside. There were some women of the Ansar in the house, and they said: “ ‘Ala al-khayri wa’l-baraka wa ‘ala khayri ta’ir (blessings, best wishes, etc).“ My mother handed me over to them and they tidied me up, then suddenly the Messenger of Allah (…) was there. It was mid-morning, and they handed me over to him. At that time I was nine years old.“ (Reported by al-Bukhari, 3605).

‘Urwah said: „Khadija died three years before the Prophet (…) migrated to Madina. He stayed alone for two years or thereabouts, then he married ‘A’isha when she was six years old, and consummated the marriage when she was nine years old.“ (Reported by al-Bukhari, 3607)

The phrase „he married ‘A’isha“ means that the marriage contract was drawn up; the marriage was consummated later on, when she was nine.

Muslim reports from al-Zuhri, from ‘Urwah, that ‘A’isha said that she was taken to him when she was nine years old, and she took her toys with her.

https://islamqa.info/en/1493

(Muhammad and Aisha Revisited) An Examination of Muhammad’s Marriage to a Prepubescent Girl And Its Moral Implications | By Sam Shamoun | Answering Islam

http://www.answering-islam.org/Shamoun/prepubescent.htm

Nuray wirkt glücklich.

Die deutschen Besucher forderten die Eltern auf, ein eigens angefertigtes Schriftstück zu unterschreiben: „Wir haben verstanden, daß Nuray in Deutschland willkommen ist, wenn sie 14 Jahre alt ist“, heißt es darin. „Wir wurden darüber belehrt, daß sexuelle Kontakte zwischen dem 22jährigen Levent Metin und unserer zwölfjährigen Tochter nach deutschem Recht streng verboten sind und mit Gefängnis bestraft werden.“ Das gelte auch für sexuelle Kontakte in Griechenland, steht da. Dahinter hat jemand handschriftlich gekritzelt: „und überall auf der Welt“.

Überall auf der Welt, nur nicht in Thrakien, wo etwa ein Drittel der 338 000 Menschen Muslime sind. Der Mufti der Universitätsstadt Komotini, Meco Cemali [Μέτσο Τζεμαλί, Faziletli Gümülcine Müftüsü Hafız Cemali Meço Efendi], hat Nurays Hochzeit amtlich besiegelt. Er ist vom griechischen Staat bestellt, sein Amtsgebäude im Zentrum der Stadt ist zugleich Standesamt und Friedensgericht […]

Wenn jedoch ein Mädchen selbst die Heirat unbedingt wolle, nehme er es persönlich psychologisch und physisch in Augenschein und entscheide, ob es reif genug sei. Wenn ja, spräche das islamische Recht nicht gegen die Ehe. Der Mufti sagt: „Daß Zwölfjährige verheiratet werden, kommt nur alle drei oder vier Jahre vor.“

Das verheiratete Kind | Von Uta Keseling | WELT (Welt/N24) 25.02.2005

https://www.welt.de/print-welt/article495796/Das-verheiratete-Kind.html

[ Düsseldorf: Bereits im Jahre 2006 ] tauchte der erste Fall auf: Es ging um eine Elfjährige, die hier mit ihrem 22-jährigen Ehemann lebte. Das Paar meldete sich sogar mit Heiratsurkunde [ s.: Nikah ] an. Am Mitwoch sollte sich der Grieche Hassan N. (damals 20, heute 22) vor Gericht verantworten, weil er eine 12-Jährige geschwängert hatte. […]

An der griechischen Grenze zur Türkei werden Minderjährige (ein altes Gesetz [das islamische Familienrecht und überhaupt das Islamische Recht, die zeitlose Scharia] erlaubt dies) mit Zustimmung der Eltern verheiratet. Die Zwangsehen sind zwar selten. [vgl.: Genital Autonomy, oder: bei Keseling: „Es war Liebe“, sagt Nurays Mutter, und auch Nuray, die zwölfjährige Braut in Kopftuch und Blümchenrock, sagt: „Ja, es war Liebe“ und versucht, dabei nicht allzu stolz auszusehen.] Da sie aber Griechenland als EU-Mitglied absegnet, sind sie auch in Deutschland gültig.

„Ein Skandal“, nennt das voller Empörung Diana Goldermann-Wolf vom Kinderschutzbund. „Staatlich geförderter Kindesmissbrauch – so etwas darf es in Europa nicht geben und verstößt auch gegen die UN-Kinderrechts-Konvention.“

Düsseldorf – Unglaublicher Fall: Zwölfjährige bekam in Zwangsehe ein Baby | Von Barbara Kirchner | EXPRESS 11.06.2008

http://www.express.de/unglaublicher-fall-zwoelfjaehrige-bekam-in-zwangsehe-ein-baby-22167452

An den Petitionsausschuss des Deutschen Bundestages

20.08.2016

Eherecht Pet 4-18-07-4030-036062

Keine Heirat unter achtzehn – auch nicht auf Kinderwunsch

Text der Petition

Der Deutsche Bundestag möge beschließen:

1 Es sind ausnahmslos keine Ehen mehr anzuerkennen, bei denen ein Partner jünger als 16 Jahre ist, was auch für religiöse Eheschließungen gilt wie die islamische Imam-Nikah.

2 Im Ausland geschlossene Ehen, auch religiöse, können auf Antrag eines Partners oder des Jugendamtes aufgehoben werden.

3 Gesetzliche Absicherung einer Altersgrenze für Ehemündigkeit von 18 Jahren und Abschaffung der bisher gültigen deutschen Ausnahmegenehmigung einer Heirat bereits ab 16 Jahren.

4 Wiedereinführung der standesamtlichen Voraustrauung und Benennung der religiösen Voraustrauung, auch der Imam-Nikah, als Straftatbestand.

5 Verbot der Bewerbung der Imam-Nikah in der universitären Imamausbildung sowie Ausbildung der Lehrerinnen und Lehrer für den bekennenden Islamischen Religionsunterricht (IRU).

6 Verbot der Bewerbung der Imam-Nikah im öffentlichen Schulunterricht, auch im bekennenden Islamischen Religionsunterricht.

7 Resolution des Deutschen Bundestages: Aufforderung an die Hellenische Republik, seit 1981 Mitglied in der Europäischen Union, die seit 1920 (Vertrag von Sèvres) bzw. 1923 (Vertrag von Lausanne) implementierte Scharia aus dem Griechischen Recht zu entfernen, ein Ehe- und Familienrecht ohne religiös oder anderweitig begründete Rechtsspaltung einzuführen und ein Heiratsalter von 18 Jahren durchzusetzen.

Begründung

Islamisches Recht ist Scharia. […]

https://schariagegner.wordpress.com/2016/08/20/petition-gegen-kinderehen/

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52 Antworten to “468. Islamische FGM durch Ärztin in Michigan”

  1. Cees van der Duin Says:

    Shabbir Mohammedbhai Vaziri, who was convicted in Australia’s first female genital mutilation court case in Sydney

    .

    .
    .

    Australia’s first female genital mutilation trial: how a bright young girl convinced a jury

    (Three people have been convicted of FGM in a landmark trial in Australia. It was a complex case in which medical evidence was inconclusive, which meant the outcome turning on phone tapping – and also the testimony of two young girls.)

    […] That the girls were touched on the genitals by an older woman, known in the trial as KM, was not disputed. What KM did to their genitals with what she described as “forceps” and Emma described as a silver tool “a bit like a scissor” was what the verdict hinged on.

    KM said she simply “touched” the genitals of the girls in a “symbolic” part of the ceremony. The prosecution argued the girls had been cut and a medical examination by a doctor could not determine what happened either way, though type one or type four FGM was not ruled out. […]

    Emma told the court she “imagined she was a princess in a garden” as KM cut her clitoris with a steel instrument. She had her eyes closed during the mutilation, though she could describe what she saw KM holding in her hand beforehand. When asked by the judge, she obediently drew it for the court. […]

    Medical evidence presented to the courtroom was inconclusive. Dr Susan Marks, a paediatrician and head of the child protection unit at Westmead Children’s hospital, examined both the girls and said it was possible they could have been cut or even had part of their clitorises removed.

    The injury had healed with no obvious scarring to either. The crown prosecutor later explained to the court this was because KM had perfected a technique that left no scarring. […]

    Australia’s first female genital mutilation trial: how a bright young girl convinced a jury | By Bridie Jabour | The Guardian 13.11.2015

    https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/nov/13/female-genital-mutilation-trial-young-girl-convinced-jury-australia

    .

    • NSW Judge said on Friday that the co-offenders wouldn’t stop the practice
    • All three are members of Sydney’s Dawoodi Bohra Muslim community
    • A mother and a nurse were found guilty of genital mutilation in November
    • Shabbir Mohammedbhai Vaziri is an accessory after the fact
    • The sentencing hearing for the two women and religious figure continues

    Islamic leader, mother and nurse convicted of genital mutilation of two girls, 7, are ‚remorseful‘ but judge finds ’no evidence‘ they will try to stamp out the practice in their community | By Brianne Tolj For Daily Mail Australia and AAP | DailyMail 05.02.2016

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3432980/Judge-concerned-no-evidence-Muslim-leader-mother-nurse-guilty-genital-mutilation-two-girls-7-try-stamp-practice-community.html

    .

    Three sentenced to 15 months in landmark female genital mutilation trial | By Michael Safi | The Guardian 18.03.2016

    https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/mar/18/three-sentenced-to-15-months-in-landmark-female-genital-mutilation-trial

    ::

    Alefiya, a 34-year-old social worker in the United States, remembers the khatna being done by her grandmother’s sister in a cold basement in New York. It was awkward and painful, she says.

    Older Dawoodi women call the clitoris ‚haraam ki boti‘ or sinful flesh — the flesh that can lead a woman astray.

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3719294/Battle-tiny-Indian-Muslim-sect-circumcising-girls.html

    ::

    The term Dā’ī al-Mutlaq or ad-Da’i ul-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق or داعي المطلق‎‎) literally means „the absolute or unrestricted missionary“

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Da%27i_al-Mutlaq

    The 53rd Fatimi Dai of Bohra Community
    Seine Heiligkeit
    مفضل سيف الدين
    Mufaddal Saifuddin

    ::
    ::

    Female circumcision anger aired in India
    AFP 23.04.2012

    The community’s insistence on “Khatna” (the excision of the clitoris) also sets it apart from others on the subcontinent.

    https://www.dawn.com/news/712748/female-circumcision-anger-aired-in-india-fm

    ::

    I was scared because my mom always talks about how she hates sex and it’s the worst thing God ever created. It’s probably because she doesn’t fucking enjoy it. Geez, no wonder because who knows how much of her clitoris is gone.

    http://imaginingequality.globalfundforwomen.org/content/female-genital-cutting

    ::
    ::

    INDONESIEN (Sunniten: Schafiiten)
    .

    When a girl is taken — usually by her mother — to a free circumcision event held each spring in Bandung, Indonesia, she is handed over to a small group of women who, swiftly and yet with apparent affection, cut off a small piece of her genitals. Sponsored by the Assalaam Foundation, an Islamic educational and social-services organization […]

    According to Lukman Hakim, the foundation’s chairman of social services, there are three “benefits” to circumcising girls.

    “One, it will stabilize her libido,” he said through an interpreter. “Two, it will make a woman look more beautiful in the eyes of her husband. And three, it will balance her psychology.” […]

    A Cutting Tradition | By Sara Corbett | The New York Times Magazine 20.01.2008

    Inside a Female-Circumcision Ceremony

    Fotos: Stephanie Sinclair

    ::

    .

    Ms. Yanti however states: “They cannot stop us. It’s our religion.”

    https://en.brilio.net/news/unicef-reports-genital-cutting-as-a-common-practice-in-indonesia-unicef-reports-genital-cutting-as-a.html

    ::

    The Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) is bucking a United Nation’s campaign to ban female circumcision, demanding that the government keep the practice legal.

    MUI deputy secretary-general Amirsyah Tambunan told reporters at a press conference on Monday that the government should continue to allow female circumcision, calling it a constitutional right.

    “Circumcision is a part of the Islamic teachings that were recommended for Muslims, both male and female,” Amrisyah said at UI headquarters as quoted by Antara news agency. “The MUI and Islamic organizations in the country firmly stand against any efforts to ban female circumcision.” […]

    MUI pushes govt to circumcise girls | The Jakarta Post (Jakarta) 22.01.2013

    https://web.archive.org/web/20130125004403/http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/01/22/mui-pushes-govt-circumcise-girls.html

    The government in Indonesia has been urged not to bow to pressure from the United Nations (UN) to make female genital mutilation (FGM) illegal. […]

    Amirsyah Tambunan, deputy secretary-general of MUI, commented: „Circumcision is a part of the Islamic teachings that were recommended for Muslims, both male and female.“ […]

    Indonesian government under pressure to keep FGM | FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) 24.01.2013

    http://www.figo.org/news/indonesian-government-under-pressure-keep-fgm-0013368

    ::

    MALAYSIA (wie Indonesien v. a. schafiitisch-sunnitisch geprägt)

    Hukum Pemotongan Genitalia Wanita (Female Genital Mutilation) (2009)

    Keputusan:
    Muzakarah Jawatankuasa Fatwa Majlis Kebangsaan Bagi Hal Ehwal Ugama Islam Malaysia Kali Ke-86 yang bersidang pada 21 – 23 April 2009 telah membincangkan Hukum Pemotongan Genitalia Wanita (Female Genital Mutilation). […]

    http://www.islam.gov.my/images/ePenerbitan/KOMPILASI_MUZAKARAH_MKI_2016.pdf

    Ke-86 yang bersidang pada 21 – 23 April 2009

    http://www.muftiwp.gov.my/index.php/ms-my/perkhidmatan/irsyad-fatwa/773-27

    Ke-86 yang bersidang pada 21 – 23 April 2009

    http://pts.com.my/berita/tiada-dalil-wajib-berkhatan-untuk-wanita-dr.-abdullah-nasih-ulwan/

    HUKUM PEMOTONGAN GENITALIA WANITA
    (FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION)
    Oleh: Taqwa binti Zabidi (JAKIM)

    Hukum Pemotongan Genitalia Wanita (Female Genital Mutilation) Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia, Rasmi Fatwa, Government of Malaysia (2009)

    http://www.myjurnal.my/filebank/published_article/34088/Article_4.PDF

    —p://legenioz.blogspot.de/2014/12/hukum-sunat-bayi-perempuan.html

    —ps://mamaunanas.blogspot.de/2012/11/una-nak-kene-sunat.html

    ::

    Islamic Law on Female Circumcision

    Answering Islam

    http://answering-islam.org/Sharia/fem_circumcision.html

    ::

  2. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    (Una doctora de Detroit está siendo acusada de la mutilación genital femenina de varias niñas pequeñas, en el que se cree es el primer proceso judicial de este tipo en Estados Unidos.)

    La Organización Mundial de la Salud define a la mutilación genital femenina (MGF) como „todos los procedimientos que, de forma intencional y por motivos no médicos, alteran o lesionan los órganos genitales femeninos“.

    La práctica, particularmente común en 30 países de África, Oriente Medio y Asia por motivos religiosos, fue declarad ilegal en Estados Unidos en 1996. (…)

    Pero Shelby Quast, directora de la ONG Equality en Estados Unidos, le dijo a la agencia AFP que Nagarwala „es sin duda el primer médico“ jamás acusado por la práctica en el país. (…)

    Según Naciones Unidas, aproximadamente 200 millones de niñas y mujeres de todo el mundo han sido víctimas de mutilación genital femenina, la mitad de ellas de Egipto, Etiopía e Indonesia. (…)

    Jumana Nagarwala, la doctora de Detroit que podría pasar el resto de su vida en la cárcel por mutilar genitalmente a niñas en Estados Unidos | Redacción BBC Mundo 14.04.2017

    http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-internacional-39599759

    __

    (…) Jumana Nagarwala, 44 ans, est accusée d’avoir réalisé ces mutilations génitales dans un cabinet médical de Livonia, dans la banlieue de Detroit, sur plusieurs fillettes âgées de six à huit ans, a indiqué le bureau du procureur fédéral pour l’Est du Michigan dans un communiqué. (…)

    Une audience prévue lundi doit déterminer si elle peut être libérée sous conditions, a indiqué à l’AFP Gina Balaya, porte-parole du FBI. Selon Shelby Quast, directrice aux Etats-Unis de l’organisation Equality Now pour la défense des femmes, Mme Nagarwala est „sans doute le premier médecin“ jamais inculpé aux Etats-Unis pour excision. (…)

    Mme Nagarwala est aussi la première personne inculpée au titre d’une loi fédérale contre les mutilations génitales sur mineurs adoptée en 1996. (…)

    États-Unis: pour la première fois dans le pays, une médecin a été inculpée pour avoir excisé plusieurs fillettes | La Côte (Nyon, Kanton Waadt, Schweiz) 14.04.2017

    http://www.lacote.ch/articles/monde/etats-unis-pour-la-premiere-fois-dans-le-pays-une-medecin-a-ete-inculpee-pour-avoir-excise-plusieurs-fillettes-663058

    __

    Une urgentiste hospitalière de Detroit (Michigan, nord) a été arrêtée et inculpée ce 13 avril pour mutilation génitale, transport de mineurs et faux témoignage. (…)

    Selon l’accusation, deux fillettes ont été amenées début février par leur mère depuis le Minnesota (nord) pour subir ces mutilations. Elles ont été priées de taire ce qu’elles avaient subi. D’autres fillettes auraient été mutilées par le Dr Nagarwala, notamment entre 2005 et 2007. (…)

    Mutilations génitales : une médecin arrêtée et inculpée aux États-Unis | Coline Garré | Quotidien du Médecin (QS Le Quotidien Santé) 14.04.2017

    http://www.lequotidiendumedecin.fr/actualites/breve/2017/04/14/mutilations-genitales-une-medecin-arretee-et-inculpee-aux-etats-unis_846609

  3. Detroit Says:

    http://www.usmessageboard.com/attachments/upload_2017-4-14_18-14-2-png.121752/

  4. Edward von Roy Says:

    „Die Handlung muss vollzogen werden. Wenn es ein Junge ist kann es offen gemacht werden, ist es ein Mädchen, dann eben heimlich. Aber die Tat muss vollbracht werden. Versteht ihr, wie ich das meine? Lassen wir die Leute doch reden.“

    ( Aus der Predigt des 53. Dai al-Mutlaq, zu Mumbai am 25.04.2016. )

    .

    .

    “It must be done. If it is a man, it can be done openly and if it is a woman it must be discreet. But the act must be done. Do you understand what I am saying? Let people say what they want.”

    ( Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin )

    http://blogs.tribune.com.pk/story/34471/bohra-men-must-speak-up-to-save-their-daughters-from-female-circumcision/

    “The act must be done. It needs to be done discreetly when it is a woman, but it needs to be done.”

    ( Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin )

    https://tribune.com.pk/story/1094163/bohra-muslim-leader-speech-urging-fgm-is-huge-disappointment-for-india-campaign/

    .

    Ende der Diskussion?

    Noch nicht ganz.

    .

    حب الوطن من الايمان
    Ḥubb al-Waṭan min al-Īmān
    Love for one’s homeland is part of faith
    Liebe zum Vaterland ist Teil des Iman (Hadith oder so …)

    Tage später gab die spirituelle Autorität der Dawudi Bohra doch noch eine Erklärung ab. Einerseits müsse jeder Junge und jedes Mädchen beschnitten werden, andererseits gelte das von Mohammed (nicht*) überlieferte Konzept Hubb al-Watan (Ḥubbu l-Waṭan) und habe der Muslim die Gesetze des Landes befolgen [nur die schariakonformen Gesetze?]. Lobend betont der Siebener-Schiit die sunnitisch-schafiitische Beschneidung aller Kinder (Kind ist Junge oder Mädchen).
    .

    Breaking his silence on the issue of female circumcision, a practice common in India’s Bohra community, Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, the spiritual head of the Dawoodi Bohras, issued a statement on Monday. “Male and female circumcision (called khatna and khafD respectively) are religious rites that have been practised by Dawoodi Bohras throughout history. Religious books, written over a thousand years ago, specify the requirements for both males and females as acts of religious purity,“ read his statement.

    The declaration refers to khafD as “Islamic female circumcision“ or a “religious obligation“ that “finds an echo in many other Muslim communities, particularly those following the Sunni Shafi’i school of thought“, but clarifies with a centuries-old quote from Prophet Mohammed–“Hubbul watan-e-minal Iman“–that requires followers to “be loyal and law-abiding citizens“. […]

    CLARIFING HIS STAND – Circumcision a religious rite, but abide by law [dann endlich die offizielle Erlaubnis der FGM?] of country: Syedna | By: Mohua Das | The Times of India (Mumbai) 07.06.2016

    http://epaperbeta.timesofindia.com/Article.aspx?eid=31804&articlexml=CLARIFING-HIS-STAND-Circumcision-a-religious-rite-but-07062016008042

    „particularly those following the Sunni Shafi’i school of thought“ […]

    (to respect the law of the land [s. Fitra] and live as worthy and contributory citizens within prevailing [die derzeit maßgeblichen, die herrschenden … die schariatreuen?] laws [darf der Mensch Gesetze erlassen?])

    http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report-syedna-mufaddal-for-female-circumcision-2221411

    (“Hubbul Watan-e-Minal Iman”) meaning the „Love of one‟s country is an element of Iman”

    http://mohammadpurazamgarh.in/pdf/chapter%20VIII.pdf

    patriotism — hubb al-watan, the love of country, the main motive which leads men to try to build up a civilized community

    https://books.google.de/books?id=Wto_ymT5vbQC&printsec=frontcover&hl=de#v=onepage&q&f=false

    .

    Watan, Heimat kann allerdings, meinen manche, die ewige Heimkehr in Dschanna bedeuten oder aber sich auf die Fitra (fiṭra) beziehen, auf Geschaffensein und Gottausgerichtetheit (jeder Mensch als Muslim geboren; einziges heute als sittlich zu benennendes Gemeinwesen war Mohammeds (in Stellvertretung für den Souverän, Gott, wieder zu errichtender) Stadtstaat Medina).

    Others have tried to explain this statement by saying that the homeland (waṭan) being referred to is the paradisal homeland of the Hereafter. Some mystics have even posited that waṭan here means one’s intrinsic nature (fiṭra) and the first covenant made by man with the Almighty.

    https://sites.google.com/site/hadithjournal/hadith-analysis/hubb-al-watan-min-al-iman-hb-alwtn-mn-alayman—love-for-one-s-homeland-is-part-of-faith

    _

    [ * Der beinahe echte Hadith: Liebe zum Vaterland ist Teil des Iman ]

    5. Januar 2013
    Hadith: „Liebe zum Vaterland ist Teil des Iman (Glaubens)“ ?

    Der Hadith

    „Liebe zum Vaterland ist Teil des Iman (Glaubens)“

    as-Sarani deklariert es Maudu (erfunden)
    (al-Mauduat Seite 7)

    al-Albani deklariert es als erfunden
    (Silsila ad-Daifah 1/110 Nr.36)

    ___ps://ahlu-sunnah.net/hadith-liebe-zum-vaterland-ist-teil-des-iman-glaubens/

  5. Abba Jared 4483 m Says:

    In 2006, a court in Georgia found a man guilty of sexually mutilating his two-year-old daughter with a pair of scissors, in what was then the first recorded case of female genital mutilation in the United States.

    The Ethiopian immigrant was sentenced to 10 years in prison for aggravated battery and cruelty to children for the 2001 crime.

    US doctor charged with genital mutilation on girls | AFP | Free Malaysia Today (FMT; Petaling Jaya,
    Selangor, Malaysia) 14.04.2017

    http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/world/2017/04/14/us-doctor-charged-with-genital-mutilation-on-girls/

    ::

    .

    During the trial Adem’s wife Fortunate [and her trustworthiness?] testified: „He said he wanted to preserve her virginity … He said it was the will of God. I became angry in my mind. I thought he was crazy.“

    Categories: 1975 births | Living people | American sex offenders | American people of Ethiopian descent | American Muslims | Criminals from Georgia (U.S. state) | Female genital mutilation

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalid_Adem

    .

    But not a single story mentions that Adem is a Muslim. Why not? You know why. Same reason the AP story on this went out of its way to note that:

    „The practice, intended to deny women sexual pleasure, crosses ethnic and cultural lines and is not tied to a particular religion.“

    Uh-huh. But, it just so happens that most of those who practice this happen to be Muslim. As is convict Khalid Adem.

    Atlanta Muslim Guilty of Female Genital Mutilation (of His Daughter) | By Debbie Schlussel 02.11.2006

    http://www.debbieschlussel.com/2585/atlanta-muslim-guilty-of-female-genital-mutilation-of-his-daughter/

    .

    the little girl’s mother, Fortunate Adem, also is from Africa [ from South Africa ]

    http://www.myajc.com/news/crime–law/from-2006-man-accused-circumcising-his-year-old-daughter/6wZbodzF25SCjaOUTrYaXP/

    .

    [ FGM in South Africa ]

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) was practiced in some rural areas of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal; however, it was not considered to be widespread and was confined to isolated cases.

    https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2003/27752.htm

    His lawyer, Mark Hill, acknowledged that Adem’s daughter had been cut. But he implied that the family of Fortunate Adem, who immigrated from South Africa when she was 6, may have had the procedure done.

    http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-10-27-georgia-trial_x.htm

    ::

    A man who in 2006 became the first person in the United States to be convicted of female genital cutting was deported on Monday to his home country, Ethiopia, after serving 10 years in prison, federal authorities said.

    The man, Khalid Adem, 41, used scissors to remove the clitoris of his 2-year-old daughter in his family’s Atlanta-area apartment in 2001, prosecutors in Gwinnett County, Ga., said. He was convicted of aggravated battery and cruelty to children.

    The case led to a state law prohibiting the practice, which was already prohibited by a federal law […]

    Father Imprisoned for Genital Cutting Is Deported to Ethiopia | By Daniel Victor | The New York Times 14.03.2017

    .

    .

    Both tribal African FGM and Sunnah (Islamic) FGM: the mutilation is usually carried out by women, not men. It is not their role, and they are not around when FGM is performed.

  6. Cees van der Duin Says:

    [ Dr. Mohammed A. Arsiwala, MD
    Internist in Livonia, Michigan ]

    Arsiwala makes annual trips to Haiti on medical relief missions with the Islamic Medical Association of North America.

    Mohammed Arsiwala […] Arsiwala 14 years ago founded Livonia-based Michigan Urgent Care Center

    http://www.crainsdetroit.com/article/20130819/NEWS/130819869/dr-mohammed-arsiwala-juggles-health-missions-fast-cars-with-new

    Dr. Mohammed Arsiwala, president and CEO of Michigan Urgent Care and board member of the Michigan State Medical Society, said he knows of Nagarwala and confirmed she is a member of the community. He said he left the community after learning of the practices.

    „This is absolutely not needed — there’s no scientific basis [but there is Islamic basis] at all for it,“ said Arsiwala, who said he has shared his concerns through resolutions presented to the state medical group and Wayne County Medical Society, of which he is a former president.

    „The most important thing … is to make sure if any girl has undergone this and needs physical or psychological support, it should be offered,“ he said, adding that his long-term goal is to work with state lawmakers and make the procedure a criminal offence in Michigan [FGM is illegal, US wide].

    Arsiwala declined to comment on the specifics of this case.

    Protection petitions filed for 2 girls in mutilation case | Associated Press | Daily Courier, Kelowna, BC (British Columbia, Kanada) 14.04.2017

    http://www.kelownadailycourier.ca/news/world_news/article_5dbb6cf1-44e4-564d-8107-951c5c79985d.html

    American Medical Association (AMA)

    Michigan State Medical Society
    Alternate Delegate(s)
    Mohammed A Arsiwala, Livonia MI
    . . . . .
    American Medical Association (AMA)
    19. Resolutions

    005* | No Compromise on AMA’s Anti-Female Genital Mutilation Policy (Amendments to C&B) […]

    005* | No Compromise on AMA’s Anti-Female Genital Mutilation Policy: Modest

    https://assets.ama-assn.org/sub/meeting/documents/i16-frontmatter.pdf

    ::

    Resolution: 005 (I-16)

    Whereas, Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the forcible mutilation of the clitoris and external genitalia of women and girls for non-medical reasons [ Warum fehlt hier die WHO-Klassifikation? ]

    [ Äußeres Genitale? Islamisch betrachtet, vgl. Penisvorhaut, gehört das zu amputierende Gewebe nicht zum menschlichen Körper (des Erwachsenen, weiblich ab neun, männlich ab 15 Jahren). Das schafiitisch zu amputierende Gewebe ist nicht external genitalia. ]

    Whereas, FGM in any form is a violation of basic human rights and bodily autonomy.

    [ FGM Typ Ia oder FGM Typ IV lesen wir hier leider nicht. Der Beschneidungswunsch eines Menschen unter 18 Jahren wäre Selbstbestimmung (autonomy). ]

    that girl and woman will suffer in her family forever

    [ In diesen Milieus leidet auch – oder vor allem – die oder der Unbeschnittene: ist nicht heiratsfähig, verstößt gegen die Scharia. ]

    Existing AMA Policy H-525.980 explicitly condemns the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM)

    annual International Day of Zero Tolerance to FGM found that 70 million more women and girls have undergone the procedure than previously thought

    [ Das ist genau Indonesien und Malaysia, Kurdistan, der Iran … ]

    There has recently been significant media coverage in 2016 about recent attempts by some academics and physicians in the American medical community to redefine FGM and promote a type of FGM in the form of a genital ‘nick’ or ‘alteration’ as a “compromise” position

    [ Die Versuche der Straffreistellung der Sunnabeschneidung (FGM) – beispielsweise: Kavita Shah Arora und Allan J. Jacobs: Female genital alteration: a compromise solution ]

    reject any type of patriarchal ‘nicking’ procedure

    [ Thema (Islam) verfehlt. Islamic ‘nicking’ procedure ]

    […] that our AMA condemns any and all ritual procedures including, but not limited to, ‘nicking’ or ‘genital alteration’ procedures done to the genitals of women and girls (New HOD Policy)

    That our AMA, on behalf of the medical community, actively advocate against the practice of FGM in all its forms (including the recently proposed ‘nicking’ and ‘alteration’ procedures)

    [ AMA wagt es nicht, das i-Wort. (Mindestens) der schafiitische Islam verlangt die Sunnabeschneidung (auch) der Mädchen. ]

    Any compromise procedure is still FGM and entirely violates existing AMA policy H-525.980 last modified A-12

    https://assets.ama-assn.org/sub/meeting/documents/i16-handbook-addendum.pdf

    ::

    [ Islamic Medical Association of North America ]
    [ NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information ]

    Published online 2012 Mar 20. doi: 10.5915/44-1-7903
    PMCID: PMC3516177

    Bodily Integrity and Male Circumcision: An Islamic Perspective

    [ Schafiitisches Recht: Jungen wie Mädchen sind zu beschneiden. ]

    By Ghiath Alahmad, MD, MA (bioethics), BA (Islamic Theology) and Wim Dekkers, MD, PhD

    For Muslims, male circumcision is performed for religious reasons, mainly to follow the sunna (practice) of Prophet Muhammad (…). Moreover, there are attempts to label it as a contributor to cleanliness / personal hygiene. These are done largely to grant the practice scientific legitimacy and a moral foundation. Because drops of urine and smegma gather under that piece of foreskin and may cause impurity to clothes and the body, many Islamic jurists understand the purpose of legislating circumcision as a way to purify the body from urine and smegma. […]

    Five practices are characteristic of the fiṭra (sound innate disposition): circumcision, shaving the pubic hair, cutting the moustaches short, clipping the nails, and depilating the hair of the armpits.7

    Among Sunni Muslim jurists, there are some differences in religious rulings on male circumcision. Jurists of the school of Imam Ahmad and al-Shafi`i consider circumcision compulsory.

    [ Genau – mindestens schafiitisch muss auch das Mädchen beschnitten werden. Ghiath Alahmad und Wim Dekkers können das wissen und müssen das schreiben. ]

    Al-Shafii school considers it recommended during childhood but obligatory only after puberty. Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik consider circumcision [auch die weibliche] to be recommended but not obligatory. This means that if done, its doer is rewarded by God, and if not done, there is no punishment or reward. The scholars agree that circumcision entails the removal of all or the majority of the foreskin that covers the glans only. It has to be done during or at the end of the childhood. […]

    Islam and Bodily Integrity

    Islam expresses a remarkable interest in the honor and preservation of the body. Many Quranic verses and Prophetic traditions set out the restrictions and instructions for its care. Islam views the body as a divine miracle, one that points to the existence of the Creator and the greatness of His creation. Accordingly, in the Glorious Qur’an, […]

    The Rules of Respecting Bodily Integrity in Islam

    Changing the body is religiously forbidden

    [ Die MGM oder FGM nach ibn asch-Schafii ist keine Veränderung (alteration) … konsequent: (nur) Schariagehorsam macht heil. ]

    All actions that would deface or maim the body are forbidden in Islam. The body must remain in its original form unless specific permission is given from the Creator to make a change. Any change in the original creation of the body is considered one of the great sins in Islam. […]

    Bodily integrity: a Comparison between Islamic and Western perspectives

    [ Der Trick von Ali Schariati usw. Wer oder was Nichtislamisch ist, sei Teil des Westens (s. bei Sayyid Qutb: Teil der Dschahiliyya). ]

    […]

    Conclusion

    The relation between circumcision and bodily integrity is one of the new topics raised by some bioethicists. The anti-circumcision movement that started to appear in the West is not expected to succeed among Muslims.

    [ Wir gottesfürchtigen Muslime wollen mit eurem Begriff von Kinderrechten oder Menschenrechten, mit eurem Wissenschaftbegriff nichts zu tun haben. ]

    In this case there is a conflict between those who oppose circumcision and the legislative requirements of Islam.

    [ Korrekt. Und Konflikt gab es auch zwischen Gegnern der Sklaverei und Sklavenbesitzern.

    Islam ist Recht. Und so steht da nicht spiritual, ethical oder medical requirements, sondern rechtsetzend, gesetzgebend: legislative. ]

    Islam shows a lot of interest in honoring and safeguarding the human body, in both the Qur’an and the prophetic tradition.

    [„Koran und Sunna“]

    Interventions in the body can be allowed only according to certain juristic rules. However, because circumcision is considered a legal procedure, it may not violate bodily integrity or even lead to a biological deficiency or a feeling of a lack of wholeness.

    [ Nichtbeschnittensein ist islamisch illegal: haram (ḥarām), und abgetrennte Köpfe, Hände oder Füße sind ggf. legal: halal. ]

    Acknowledgments

    This paper is the result of the work performed as a part of the educational program “Erasmus Mundus Master of Bioethics”. We also would like to acknowledge the support provided by the King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC).

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3516177/

    ::

    Medical Research Center (KAIMRC)
    King Abdullah International Medical Research Center
    (كيمارك KAIMRC)
    . . . . .
    In 2008, the Al-Azhar Supreme Council of Islamic Research, the highest religious authority in Egypt, ruled that FGM/C has no basis in core Islamic law,

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4346006/

    „Its prohibited, prohibited, prohibited,“ Egypt’s Grand Mufti Ali Goma said on the privately owned al-Mahwar network Saturday.

    [ Im Islam ganz doll verboten, das Verstümmeln … nicht das islamische Mädchenbeschneiden. ]

    While top clerics here insist that the practice has nothing to do with Islam, […]

    Death of 12-Year-Old Circumcised Girl Shocks Egypt, Prompts Ban on Rite | AP | Fox News 29.06.2007

    http://www.foxnews.com/story/2007/06/29/death-12-year-old-circumcised-girl-shocks-egypt-prompts-ban-on-rite.html

    Fatwa from Egypt, 2006

    In 2006 the German human rights organization Target organized a conference at the Al-Azhar University in Egypt. Leading Muslim religious leaders who were present at the conference, endorsed a fatwa against FGM. This fatwa was issued by the highest Islamic cleric of Egypt, the Grand Mufti Professor Ali Goma’a. According to him, FGM should be seen as punishable aggression and a crime against humanity. A Muslim must always protect the integrity of the human body.

    http://www.pharos.nl/information-in-english/female-genital-mutilation/protocols-and-materials/prevention-materials/fatwas

    Fatwa, am 24. November 2006 in Kairo vom Großmufti von Ägypten Ali Gom’a unterzeichnet.

    „Weibliche Genitalbeschneidung ist eine ererbte Unsitte“

    [ Sind schon schlimm, diese Traditionen. Achja, und das religiöse, das islamische Beschneiden? ]

    „Die heutzutage praktizierte weibliche Genitalbeschneidung fügt der Frau physische und psychische Schäden zu. Daher müssen diese Praktiken“

    [ Und die anderen Praktiken, die islamischen von gestern oder die islamischen morgen? ]

    http://www.pharos.nl/documents/doc/fatwa_meisjesbesnijdenis_arab-du.pdf

    The conference calls on Muslims to end this deplorable custom in accordance with the teachings of Islam,

    [ FGM Typ III – beklagenswertes Brauchtum. Kann weg, da vorislamisch jedenfalls unislamisch.

    Die anderen Beschneidungsformen (FGM) könnt ihr soweit beenden, wie euch das islamisch angemessen erscheint … ]

    http://www.pharos.nl/documents/doc/fatwa_meisjesbesnijdenis_arab-en.pdf

  7. Edward von Roy Says:

    ___

    The Egyptian Controversy Over Circumcising Girls
    By: B. Chernitsky

    Inquiry & Analysis Series No.152
    MEMRI (The Middle East Media Research Institute) 07.11.2003

    https://www.memri.org/reports/egyptian-controversy-over-circumcising-girls

    Englisch aus o. g. Quelle MEMRI, meine Übersetzung ins Deutsche:

    Das Mädchen zu beschneiden, bringt ihr Bescheidenheit und Anstand, Ehrgefühl sowie ein emotionales Gleichgewicht.

    (Dr. Ahmad Suleiman von der Universität Kairo)

    ‚Circumcising a Girl Brings Modesty, Honor, and Emotional Balance‘

    (Dr. Ahmad Suleiman of Cairo University)

    According to Dr. Suleiman, the fact that Muslims have been practicing this tradition for thousands of years eliminates any claims that it is detrimental to sexuality. He expressed his amazement over the argument that circumcision causes frigidity in women, saying that throughout the many generations that Muslims have practiced circumcising girls, they have been enjoying natural lives as married couples. Moreover, he says, „circumcising a girl brings modesty, honor, and emotional balance.“

    (Likewise, Dr. Suleiman claimed that not circumcising women results in the spread of prostitution. Al-Haqiqa (Egypt), June 7, 2003.)

    Die Mädchen nicht zu beschneiden öffnet Verdorbenheit und Prostitution Tür und Tor, ein Ergebnis, das wir am Westen sehen, wo jeder normale, zutiefst menschliche Bedarf ignoriert worden ist. Wollen wir so sein wie der Westen? Die [Anti-FGM-]Werbespots, die in diesen Tagen im Fernsehen gezeigt werden, sind zu verabscheuen, da sie dem Islamischen Recht [Scharia] zuwiderlaufen. (…) Ziel [der Anti-FGM-Spots] ist, die muslimische Familie zu zerstören und die ägyptische Gesellschaft zu zersetzen.

    (Der islamische Schriftsteller Dr. Ahmed Abd al-Rahman)

    „Not circumcising girls opens the gate to the spread of depravity and prostitution, as happened in the West as a result of ignoring this normal, human demand. Do we want to be like the West? The commercials [against circumcising girls] broadcast on television these days are repulsive because they contradict Islamic law… Their purpose is to destroy the Muslim family and degrade Egyptian society.“

    (Islamic writer Dr. Ahmed Abd al-Rahman)
    (Al-Haqiqa (Egypt), June 7, 2003.)

    https://www.memri.org/reports/egyptian-controversy-over-circumcising-girls

    ___

  8. LevBehZiz Says:

    „The genitals of both girls and boys needs to be protected from the harm of any genital cutting practice.“

    ( Norm Cohen, NOCIRC of Michigan )
    .
    .
    .

    [ 18 USC 116 (female genital mutilation) ]
    [ United States of America v. JUMANA NAGARWALA ]

    And Don’t Cut My Brother Either!

    Genital cutting doesn’t just happen to girls. It happens to boys too, at the rate of 53,000 babies born in Michigan every year!

    Join us AT NOON on Monday April 17th in front of the U.S. District Courthouse in downtown Detroit as the VERY FIRST prosecution in the United States for female genital mutilation gets underway inside. We will be holding signs at the Lafayette Blvd. entrance.

    Dr. Jumana Nagarwala, who is currently in federal custody on charges of genitally mutilating children, will be driven to the downtown Courthouse to face a detention hearing at 1 pm.

    Show up at the Courthouse to help us teach the public and the media that genital mutilation doesn’t just happen to girls! Signs and blood-stained suits will be provided.

    Dr. Nagarwala and others physicians are legally allowed to cut the genitals of boys without any medical necessity, but the slightest cutting of girls‘ genitalia, regardless of religious belief, is a 5-year felony. (Title 18 United States Code paragraph 116).

    The Genital Integrity of both girls AND boys needs to be protected from the harm of circumcision!

    83% of newborn boys are genitally mutilated in Michigan hospitals every year. Michigan has one of the highest rates of non-religious circumcisions anywhere in the world. Male circumcision is a barbaric practice driven by the SAME reasons as female genital mutilation: cleanliness, tradition, religion, and pseudoscience!

    Please show up at the Courthouse at 12 pm to demand protection for ALL children!

    https://allevents.in/detroit/and-dont-cut-my-brother-either/1150030911773391#

    .

    And Don’t Cut My Brother Either!

    .

    https://www.facebook.com/events/1150030911773391/

    .

    And Don’t Cut My Brother Either!

    Mon, Apr 17, 2017 from 12:00pm – 2:00pm @ United States District Courthouse

    Join us in front of the U.S. District Courthouse in downtown Detroit as the VERY FIRST prosecution in the US for female genital mutilation [ FGM ] gets underway inside. We will be holding signs at the Lafayette Blvd. entrance.

    http://www.nocircofmi.org/Events.aspx

    .

    And Don’t Cut My Brother Either!

    https://www.facebook.com/events/1150030911773391/permalink/1150030921773390/

    Protesters Want Protection for Boys Too

    Posted by NOCIRC of Michigan on Sunday, April 16, 2017

    NOCIRCofMI

    https://www.facebook.com/NOCIRCofMI/

    .

    Protesters in Detroit say male circumcision should also be outlawed

    By: Tresa Baldas
    Detroit Free Press 17.04.2017

    […] „The genitals of both girls and boys needs to be protected from the harm of any genital cutting practice,“ says Norm Cohen, Executive Director of NOCIRC of Michigan, a nonprofit, consumer-rights advocacy group that researches circumcision effects. “Michigan has one of the highest rates of circumcision in the world. This unnecessary custom violates a child’s right to bodily integrity and normal functions.” […]

    “Doctors and hospitals profit by perpetuating the myth that infant circumcision is health care. It is not,“ Cohen states. „It is a harmful custom that removes a normal, functioning part of a child’s genitals at the request of parents.“

    http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/detroit/2017/04/17/genital-mutilation-circumcision-protest/100562504/

    .
    .

    CIRCUMCISION: A RABBI’S SON SPEAKS OUT

    (Brother K: „*** INTACTIVISM IN AMERICAN HISTORY *** A pioneer of our movement, Norm Cohen, founder, NOCIRC of Michigan, speaks eloquently about the right of a man to choice. Circumcision is a permanent injury that cannot be undone.“)

    .

    .
    .

    Jews Against Circumcision

    Educated and enlightened Jews who disagree with the barbaric, primitive, torturous, and mutilating practice of non-consensual circumcision.

    .

    https://de-de.facebook.com/Jews-Against-Circumcision-165424110207450/

    .
    .

    Beyond the Bris

    A community of Jewish people who are united in the belief that circumcising healthy children is harmful and unnecessary.

    http://www.beyondthebris.com/

    .
    .

  9. Cees van der Duin Says:

    Chatna, weibliche Genitalverstümmelung, in Australien – auch! – eine FGM Typ Ib … islamisch begründet den Siebenjährigen die Klitoris ganz oder teilweise herausschneiden, das können manche Beschneiderinnen der Dawudi Bohra without leaving a scar, absolut narbenfrei.

    Shabbir Mohammedbhai Vaziri, a spiritual leader in the Dawoodi Bohra community, was jailed for 15 months after being found guilty of helping cover up FGM inflicted on two young girls.

    A retired nurse, a mother of two girls and a Dawoodi Bohra community leader have each been sentenced to a maximum 15 months in prison after Australia’s first criminal prosecution for female genital mutilation.

    The older sister underwent a ceremony known as “khatna” in a community member’s home in the New South Wales south coast town of Wollongong. Her younger sister’s FGM was carried out in the family’s western Sydney home.

    Both girls were aged seven at the time of the FGM, which was classed as either type one or type four, involving the cutting or partial removal of their clitorises without leaving a scar.

    (By: Michael Safi | The Guardian 18.03.2016)

    .
    .

    .

    Flight risk, Fluchtgefahr: Medizinerin und islamische Mädchenbeschneiderin
    Jumana Fakhruddin Nagarwala
    Jumana F. Nagarwala
    Jumana Nagarwala
    [ Gerichtsverhandlung ist am 27. April 2017 ]

    .

    .

    Michigan Medical

    JUMANA FAKHRUDDIN NAGARWALA is a Medicine – Medical Doctor licensed to practice in Michigan. This medical licensee license is current. The license was granted 06/19/2001 and expired on 01/31/2017.

    https://www.michiganmedical.net/jumana-fakhruddin-nagarwala

    ::

    Jumana Fakhruddin Nagarwala – Northville, MI
    Emergency Medicine Physician at Henry Ford Hospital

    https://www.intelius.com/people/Jumana-Nagarwala/Northville-MI/0c4evfq0128

    .

    .
    .

    Ehefrau von Moschee-Direktor Scheich Moiz wollte untertauchen:

    Amerikanische Genitalverstümmlerin Nagarwala im letzten Augenblick erfolgreich an Flucht nach Afrika gehindert

    Die islamische Ritualbeschneiderin und US-amerikanische Ärztin wollte sich ins Ausland absetzen! Dr. Jumana Nagarwala war schon auf dem Flughafen, ihr Reiseziel: Nairobi. Wie im benachbarten Mombasa lebt auch in der Hauptstadt von Kenia eine große Community von Siebenerschiiten der Strömung Dawudi Bohra.

    Noch auf dem Flughafen von Detroit, Michigan, USA, konnte die FGM-Täterin festgenommen werden.

    Andschuman-e-Nadschmi-Moschee, Orchard Lake Road, Farmington Hills

    Aufgeführt als Scheich (Shaikh) und als einer der neun Direktoren (directors) ist Ehemann Moiz Nagarwala in der örtlichen Moscheegemeinde offensichtlich Respektsperson. Weltweit umfasst diese siebenerschiitische Strömung eine Million Muslime.

    In Pakistan und Indien wie auch im australischen Sydney bzw. Wollongong (Scheich Shabbir Mohammedbhai Vaziri) wurden die Dawudi Bohra durch ihre religiös (islamisch) begründete FGM bekannt. Die Bohra begehen weibliche Genitalverstümmelung an den Mädchen, wenn diese ungefähr sieben Jahre alt sind.

    ::

    Lawyer: Doctor was doing religious procedure, not harm | By: Robert Snell | The Detroit News Published 11:55 a.m. ET 17.04.2017 | Updated 2 hours ago

    [ khatna = Islamic FGM ]

    Lawyer: Doctor was doing religious procedure, not harm

    Detroit — A Detroit emergency room physician charged with mutilating the genitalia of two 7-year-olds from Minnesota denied cutting the girls, saying she merely performed a religious procedure that involved removing and then burying skin in the ground. […]

    […] Nagarwala belongs to a small, insular group of Shia Muslims that has been linked to an mutilation scandal in Australia two years ago. […]

    [ 2016 | Shabbir Mohammedbhai Vaziri, a spiritual leader in the Dawoodi Bohra community, was jailed for 15 months after being found guilty of helping cover up FGM inflicted on two young girls.

    A former midwife, a mother of two girls and a Dawoodi Bohra community leader sentenced over mutilation of two young girls in Australia’s first criminal prosecution for FGM. ]

    The hearing came four days after Nagarwala was arrested at Detroit Metropolitan Airport while trying to fly to Nairobi, Kenya.

    […] The doctor merely wiped off a portion of the mucous membrane from the girls’ clitoris, Thompson said. A small amount was placed on a gauze pad and given to the family for burial, the lawyer added.

    “This is part of the culture,” Thompson told the magistrate.

    Nagarwala is a member of the Dawoodi Bohra from India, a community that is based locally out of the Anjuman-e-Najmi mosque on Orchard Lake Road in Farmington Hills. It’s the only Dawoodi Bohras mosque in Michigan. […] …

    .


    .

    [ The Anjuman-e-Najmi mosque on Orchard Lake Road in Farmington Hills ]

    … Nagarwala’s husband, Moiz Nagarwala, is listed as a leader of the Farmington Hills mosque, according to the mosque’s password-protected website, and records list him as having served as joint treasurer. […]

    Community leader Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin endorsed female genital mutilation in April 2016, according to Sahiyo, a nonprofit group in India that is trying to end the practice.

    But a month later, leaders at the Farmington Hills mosque ordered its members to follow state and federal laws and not engage in female genital mutilation. […]

    http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/detroit-city/2017/04/17/female-genital-mutilation-doctor/100563870/

    http://tuipad.com/lawyer-doctor-was-doing-religious-procedure-not-harm/

    .

    [ Gerichtsverhandlung ist am 27.04.2017 ]
    [ bail = Bürgschaft; Kaution ]
    [ flight risk = Fluchtrisiko ]

    Michigan doctor accused of performing genital mutilation on young girls is denied bail
    By Caroline Modarressy-Tehrani | VICE News 17.04.2017

    […] Federal prosecutors say that Dr. Jumana Nagarwala has been performing the illegal cutting practice on girls between 6 and 8 years old for more than a decade. She was arrested Thursday after the FBI received a tip, trying to board a flight to Nairobi, Kenya, where she planned to visit two of her children who are in a boarding school there, according to the Department of Justice.

    U.S. Magistrate Judge Mona Majzoub labeled Nagarwala a flight risk in denying her bail.

    The DOJ confirmed that Nagarwala is the first person to be charged under 18 U.S.C. 116, a federal law that criminalized female genital mutilation, or FGM, in 2012. […] [ 18 USC 116: Female genital mutilation – U.S. Code ]

    Nagarwala’s trial starts April 27.

    https://news.vice.com/story/michigan-doctor-jumana-nagarwala-accused-of-performing-genital-mutilation-on-young-girls-denied-bail

    .
    .

    [ Islamic FGM in Australia (2016) ]

    Three sentenced to 15 months in landmark female genital mutilation trial

    Shabbir Mohammedbhai Vaziri, a spiritual leader in the Dawoodi Bohra community, was jailed for 15 months after being found guilty of helping cover up FGM inflicted on two young girls.

    A retired nurse, a mother of two girls and a Dawoodi Bohra community leader have each been sentenced to a maximum 15 months in prison after Australia’s first criminal prosecution for female genital mutilation.

    A former midwife, Kubra Magennis, and a woman who cannot be named were found guilty in November of carrying out FGM on two girls, the woman’s daughters, between 2009 and 2012.

    The older sister underwent a ceremony known as “khatna” in a community member’s home in the New South Wales south coast town of Wollongong. Her younger sister’s FGM was carried out in the family’s western Sydney home.

    Both girls were aged seven at the time of the FGM, which was classed as either type one or type four, involving the cutting or partial removal of their clitorises without leaving a scar. […]

    (By: Michael Safi | The Guardian 18.03.2016)

    https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/mar/18/three-sentenced-to-15-months-in-landmark-female-genital-mutilation-trial

  10. Stop all forms of FGM - FGM Type I (i. e. Ia or Ib), Type II, Type III, and Type IV - ALL forms! Says:

    Chamí / Emberá
    Emberá

    The Emberá are an indigenous group in Colombia and Panama

    when her mother-in-law instructed her to cut her infant’s clitoris

    https://nobelwomensinitiative.org/meet-solani-zapata-part/

    the baby’s clitoris will be cut in the long-held tradition of the Emberá

    https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/nov/19/colombia-embera-female-genital-mutilation-mystery-myth-misgiving

    „When a girl was born, a little blade was bought,“ she says before explaining how a girl’s clitoris would be removed in the first weeks after her birth.

    „They said that if you hadn’t been cut you’d go with many men, become a bad wife and look for other husbands,“ she recalls her grandmother telling her.

    http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-37374006

    uno de los ritos establecidos por la cultura emberá chamí es la ablación del clítoris.

    http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-83332011000200006

    Wuarzona responde con un rotundo „claro“ cuando se le pregunta si todavía hay niñas embera a las que se les extirpa el clítoris.

    http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/nacional/colombia-unico-pais-latinoamericano-donde-se-da-ablacio-articulo-542422

    ::

    International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation

    Statement by UN Women on the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, 6 February 2017

    Date: 03.02.2017

    http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2017/2/statement-by-un-women-on-the-international-day-of-zero-tolerance-for-female-genital-mutilation

  11. Edward von Roy Says:

    There’s no such thing as ‚mild‘ FGM.

    Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) =
    zero tolerance even to the less invasive forms of FGM

    WHO: „Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve altering or injuring the female genitalia for non-medical reasons and is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.“

    Der Strafprozess: United States of America v. JUMANA NAGARWALA darf nicht zur Straffreistellung der angeblich gering invasiven Formen der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung (FGM) führen.

    Außerhalb der Geschäftszeiten, spät abends beschnitt die fürchterlich gottesfürchtige Muslima die Mädchen in der uns namentlich nicht bekannten Privatklinik in Livonia, in der sie offiziell gar nicht arbeitete.

    Die endlich ertappte FGM-Täterin wollte sich nach Afrika absetzen. Deshalb verbrachte Dr. Jumana Nagarwala (44) das Wochenende im Gefängnis und bleibt auch dort, Kaution abgelehnt, mindestens bis zum Verhandlungsbeginn am 27.04.2017 – Donnerstag, 27. April

    Nagarwala’s trial starts April 27

    https://news.vice.com/story/michigan-doctor-jumana-nagarwala-accused-of-performing-genital-mutilation-on-young-girls-denied-bail

    She is due back in court for a preliminary hearing on April 27 at 1 p.m

    http://www.mlive.com/news/detroit/index.ssf/2017/04/doctor_charged_with_genital_mu.html

    Die religiöse Handlung. The religious procedure. Der sunnitisch-schafiitische Islam und ebenso der Islam der siebener-schiitischen Dawudi Bohra verlangt die Beschneidung (Genitalverstümmelung) aller Kinder. Kind ist Junge oder Mädchen.

    Verstümmeln, Verstümmelung klingt nicht nett. Die Religion macht schließlich alle glücklich. Also redet man von Beschneidung (circumcision) oder schneiden (cutting) – von der Chatna.

    Nein, auch das klingt immer noch nicht nett genug.

    Also lügt man noch etwas mehr und will, in diese Richtung argumentiert Dr. Jumana Nagarwalas Anwältin Shannon M. Smith, uns die Diskussion aufzwingen, dass es doch nur um Reinigen oder Saubermachen gehe, um ein andächtig auszuführendes intergeneratives und kinderfreundliches Ritual. Anwältin Smith hat sich auf Strafverteidigung im Bereich Sexualstraftaten spezialisiert.

    Attorney Shannon Smith
    Sex Crimes Defense Lawyer in Michigan

    http://www.defendingabuse.com/our-firm/shannon-smith/

    Michigan | Criminal Sexual Conduct Attorney | We Develop Effective Defense Strategies For Clients From The Beginning

    http://www.defendingabuse.com/

    Der Islam will die FGM und dem Islam darf sich nichts in den Weg stellen. Von den USA aus kämpfen Kavita Shah Arora und Allan J. Jacobs (Female genital alteration: a compromise solution) dafür, die WHO-Klassifikation zur weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung zu zerspalten in einen weiterhin verbotenen und einen ihrer Meinung nach zeitnah straffrei zu stellenden Teil. Das ist unbedingt zu verhindern; alle vier Typen der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung, das ist FGM Typ I, II, III, IV, müssen verboten bleiben. Arora und Jacobs wollen die Mädchen genital ein kleines bisschen beschädigen (lassen), aber bittesehr nur durch FGM-Prozeduren von einer Eingriffstiefe und Zerstörungsfolge „de minimis“.

    Uns in Deutschland erinnert das an gewisse „symbolische Bagatellverletzungen“, die der Trierer Strafrechtsprofessor Prof. Dr. Mark A. Zöller offensichtlich straffrei gestellt wissen will (Die Strafbarkeit der Genitalverstümmelung als Gesetzessymbolik? In: Festschrift für Bernd Schünemann zum 70. Geburtstag am 1. November 2014; Mitherhausgeberin ist die Mädchenbeschneidungsfreundin Tatjana Hörnle).

    __

    Detroit doctor denies performing female circumcisions; Judge keeps her locked up

    THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

    First posted: Monday, April 17, 2017

    DETROIT — A Detroit-area doctor charged with performing genital mutilation on two seven-year-old girls denied the allegations through her lawyer Monday, insisting that she conducted a benign religious ritual for families of a Muslim sect. […]

    “They were the last in a long line of children cut by the defendant,” Assistant U.S. Attorney Sara Woodward said of the two girls who were accompanied to the Livonia clinic by their mothers. […]

    Die globale Bewegung für immer mehr Schariagesetze drängelt dazu, den Chitan al-inath, die Mädchenbeschneidung (FGM) (ختان الإناث), in Kliniken oder Arztpraxen zu verfrachten. Schreckliche Komplikationen schließlich würden im Hinterzimmer drohen, daher empfiehlt man die hygienische Medikalisierung – zunächst von FGM Typ Ia oder Typ IV (die islamische Forderung nach Typ Ib kommt später; überhaupt: Sitte, Keuschheit oder Ehre ist Familiensache, bei Bedarf wird das Mädchen nachbeschnitten).

    Ihre Mandantin, die Ärztin und islamische Mädchenbeschneiderin Jumana Nagarwala, sei besorgt gewesen um perfekte Hygiene bei dieser altehrwürdigen religiösen Prozedur, meint Strafverteidigerin, Shannon Smith (The Law Offices of Shannon M. Smith, PC, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan).

    “She was familiar with the religious procedure. … It does not have to be done by a physician,” Smith replied. “I believe my client wanted it to be as sanitary, as clean as possible.”

    […]

    “This is going to be a complex” case, Smith said.

    The judge replied: “I agree with you.”

    Da ist nichts kompliziert – FGM ist FGM!

    JEDE Form von FGM muss verboten bleiben, auch die „milde Sunna“ oder vielmehr Sunnabeschneidung der Mädchen: sunat perempuan (sunat wanita, khitan wanita) in Südostasien, Chatna bei den Dawudi Bohra.

    Hoffentlich versteht es auch U.S. Magistrate Judge Mona Majzoub:

    Jeder Versuch des Aufweichens der WHO-Klassifikation ist zu verhindern.

    http://www.torontosun.com/2017/04/17/detroit-doctor-denies-performing-female-circumcisions-judge-keeps-her-locked-up

    __

    Immerhin, richtig eingeschätzt: Die Gefahr von Flucht besteht.

    U.S. Magistrate Judge Mona Majzoub labeled Nagarwala a flight risk in denying her bail.

    https://news.vice.com/story/michigan-doctor-jumana-nagarwala-accused-of-performing-genital-mutilation-on-young-girls-denied-bail

    __

    Lawyer: Genital procedure on girls was part of ‚religious practice‘
    Tresa Baldas | Detroit Free Press Published 3:30 p.m. ET 17.04.2017 | Updated 16 hours ago

    In a stunning revelation in federal court today, an attorney for a Detroit area doctor charged with mutilating the genitals of young girls admitted that her client performed a procedure on the juveniles‘ private parts, but maintained that it wasn’t cutting.

    Instead, the lawyer said Dr. Jumana Nagarwala, 44, of Northville, removed the membrane from the girls‘ genitals as part of a religious practice that is tied to an international Indian-Muslim group that the doctor belongs to.

    Attorney Shannon Smith said that her client removed the membrane from the girls vaginal parts and gave it the girls‘ parents, who would then bury it following a custom practiced by a small sect of Indian Muslims known as the Dawudi Bohra.

    All of this was disclosed at a detention hearing for Nagarwala, who was ordered locked up pending the outcome of her case. […]

    „She knew that this was illegal but did it anyway,“ Assistant U.S. Attorney Sara Woodward said in court, claiming there’s also a risk of Nagarwala and others pressuring others in their religious community not to talk to authorities about this „incredibly secretive“ procedure.

    [Tahara, rituelle Reinheit (طهارة ṭahāra) ist herzustellen; ein islamisches Ziel für die Frau, viel oder gar möglichst viel ‚Schmerzen beim Sex‘ zu erleiden, gibt es nicht. Zeitgenössische muslimische FGM-Bewerber behaupten längst, dass FGM Typ Ia für die Frau die sexuelle Lust ja gerade erhöhe. Gegebenenfalls ist allerdings mit FGM Typ Ib (Teil)Amputation der Klitoris die Lustwahrnehmung irreversibel ein bisschen oder ganz kaputtgemacht worden (sehr analog zur Jungenbeschneidung), Resultat von Typ Ib aber ist (sofern das Mädchen überlebt) ‚keine Lust spüren‘ oder ggf. ‚gar nichts spüren‘, nicht jedoch pauschal ‚Schmerz beim Sex‘.]

    […] The practice, which seeks to curb the sexuality of girls and women by making sex painful, qualifies as a criminal sexual act, as the intent of the procedure is considered to abuse, humiliate, harass or degrade.

    [Unsinn, die Chatna soll sauber, rein, ehrenwert, keusch, sittsamm, fromm usw. machen, und vor allem soll sie einfach nur der Scharia entsprechen, dem Islamischen Gesetz. Die Chatna (Chitan al-inath (ختان الإناث), sunat perempuan) soll also weder missbrauchen (abuse) noch erniedrigen (humiliate). Dass jede Frau, dass die Muslima im Islam mehr Sünde, weniger Religion hat, weniger Wert ist, rechtlich erniedrigt werden muss (halbes Erbe, halbe Aussage vor Gericht u.v.a.m.), stimmt.

    Doch wo beide Geschlechtsklassen (gender) beschnitten werden, kann noch nicht einmal von Ungleichbehandlung die Rede sein. Auch auf dieses Gespräch also darf sich kein Intaktivist einlassen, denn schafiitisch bzw. bei den Dawudi Bohra erhalten das Mädchen und der Junge die vergleichbare lebenslange genitale Schädigung: 100 % gender equality, zynisch gesagt: in aller Gleichberechtigung.

    JEDE Form der FGM muss verboten bleiben, auch die noch so geringfügige. In Bezug auf die Mädchenbeschneidung wie die Jungenbeschneidung haben wir weltweit durchzusetzen: Keine Beschneidung unter achtzehn Jahren.

    ALLE Kinder müssen genital intakt bleiben (Kind ist Mensch unter 18 Jahre.]

    http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/detroit/2017/04/17/doctor-admits-genital-procedures-girls-denies-cutting/100574190/

    Der Strafprozess: United States of America v. JUMANA NAGARWALA darf nicht zur Straffreistellung der angeblich gering invasiven Formen der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung (FGM) führen.

    „Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve altering or injuring the female genitalia for non-medical reasons and is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.“ (WHO)

    There’s no such thing as ‚mild‘ FGM.

    Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) =
    zero tolerance even to the less invasive forms of FGM

  12. Islam & Female Genital Mutilation · images & impressions Says:

    Hukum Khitan Bagi Wanita – Ustadz Firanda Andirja, MA

    Ust Azhar Idrus- Khitan Anak Perempuan

    Sunat Perempuan Nazira Naella Putri

  13. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    Criminal Complaint

    https://www.justice.gov/opa/press-release/file/957381/download

    https://www.justice.gov/usao-edmi/press-release/file/957376/download

    Department of Justice · U.S. Attorney’s Office · Eastern District of Michigan

    https://www.justice.gov/usao-edmi/pr/detroit-emergency-room-doctor-arrested-and-charged-performing-female-genital-mutilation

    //
    //

    Jumana Nagarwala

    [ From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]

    Dr. Jumana Nagarwala is an Indian-American physician who, in 2017, became the first person charged under the United States law criminalizing female genital mutilation. Nagarwala, licensed in Michigan, was accused of cutting the genitals of two Minnesota girls who traveled to Michigan with their mothers on what they had been told was a „special girls‘ trip“. They were instead taken to a clinic in Livonia, where Nagarwala operated on them. She faces life in prison if convicted.

    Nagarwala is a Dawoodi Bohra, a member of the only religious community in India to regularly practice FGM.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juma l a_Na r garwala

    //
    //

    Dr. Jumana Nagarwala […] She’s been an assistant director of the emergency medicine residency program at Detroit’s Henry Ford Hospital.

    She’s published several papers in the medical literature on such topics as determining when it’s necessary to get CT scans of the necks of injured patients and how to manage emergency department patients with a small bowel obstruction.

    And at the 2016 annual meeting of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, she presented a brief talk (see page 85 here), entitled “Surviving Midnights: Lessons Learned from Kindergarten.” […]

    Doctor Charged With Female Genital Mutilation Has Published Research, Overseen Residents | By: Rita Rubin | FORBES 14.04.2017

    https://www.forbes.com/sites/ritarubin/2017/04/14/doctor-charged-with-female-genital-mutilation-has-published-research-overseen-residents/#2e30f5ae6224

    //

    Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM)

    http://www.saem.org/utilitymenu/about

    IGNITE! SAEM

    Surviving Midnights: Lessons Learned from Kindergarten. Jumana Nagarwala, MD

    https://www.saem.org/docs/default-source/annual-meeting/2016-Annual-Meeting/pdf.pdf?sfvrsn=2

    Computed Tomography of Small Bowel Obstruction

    http://www.radiologic.theclinics.com/article/S0033-8389(12)00151-0/abstract

    The Vomiting Patient
    Small Bowel Obstruction, Cyclic Vomiting, and Gastroparesis

    Jumana Nagarwala, MD
    Sharmistha Dev, MD, MPH
    Abraham Markin, MD

    http://www.emed.theclinics.com/article/S0733-8627(15)00119-4/abstract?rss=yes&utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=Emergency_Medicine_Clinics_TrendMD_0

  14. Edward von Roy Says:

    “FGM is FGM is FGM.”

    My real concern is that Michigan and all the USA will soon legalise some “mild” forms of the Classification of FGM.

    Every form of FGM should be banned everywhere.
    .
    .

    Douglas Diekema (AAP) wollte ein bisschen FGM in den US-amerikanischen Medizinbetrieb integrieren.
    .

    […] Widespread discussion around the topic resurfaced in May of this year when the American Academy of Pediatrics Bioethics Committee reviewed a 1998 policy which banned any female circumcision. The committee recommended that the AAP approve what it called a “ritual nick,” arguing it’s on par with ear piercing and “much less extensive than routine newborn male genital cutting,” or circumcision.

    Douglas Diekema, chairman of the AAP’s Bioethics Committee at the time, has long believed that pediatricians should be able to perform a nick as an alternative to a more dangerous procedure performed in a nonmedical setting. […]

    While the World Health Organization defines four types, two forms of the practice are the most well-known.

    The mild form, which some refer to as a “clitoral nick,” or [ sunna ] “sunnah,” can consist of cutting, poking or removing part or all of either the clitoris or the clitoral hood. […]

    While some draw a definite distinction between female circumcision and Islam – defining the practice as a cultural one – several people said that the hadith, the traditional sayings and customs of the Prophet Muhammad, offers the nick as an option.

    Although female circumcision has been practiced among other religions, it’s most commonly associated with Islam.

    Many point to a line in the hadith in which the Prophet Muhammad says to a circumciser on the way to perform the procedure “do not overdo it, because it [the clitoris] is a good fortune for the spouse and a delight to her.” In this statement, some claim that the prophet is advocating the mild form of circumcision. Still others believe the prophet is condemning the tradition altogether. […]

    Female circumcision: A cut that divides communities | By: Tara Bannow (The Minnesota Daily) | 25.09.2010

    https://www.tcdailyplanet.net/female-circumcision-cut-divides-communities/

    ::

    [ AAP = American Academy of Pediatrics ]

    […] “What you really have is a disagreement about tactics,” said Dr. Douglas Diekema, a bioethics professor at the University of Washington in Seattle and a physician at Seattle Children’s Hospital, who chaired the AAP’s bioethics committee. “It’s very naïve to think that if you suddenly say [female circumcision] is wrong, people will stop doing it.” […]

    The committee [ AAP’s bioethics committee ] settled on calling the procedure “female genital cutting,” or FGC, and in the process of revising, rewording and rethinking its policy, it considered an approach for minimizing harm first proposed by doctors at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle. In the mid-1990s, some of them were attending pregnant women from Seattle’s Somali community. “If your baby is a boy, do you want him circumcised?” they would ask. Some of Somali mothers-to-be would reply, “Yes, and also if it’s a girl.”

    The Harborview doctors proposed that the hospital offer these mothers a “clitoral nick” for their daugthers — a needle prick, really — in the small hood of tissue that covers the clitoris. “We’re talking about something far less extensive than the removal of foreskin in a male,” a common procedure in the United States, said Dr. Diekema. Such a compromise, the doctors argued, would discourage parents from sending their girls back to their native countries for unregulated and unsanitary procedures.

    “They weren’t trying to propagate FGC,” said Dr. Diekema, who had heard the stories of female circumcision requests from his colleagues at Harborview. “If this nick could prevent harm for a few girls, they wanted to have it in their back pocket as an option.” But when news of the proposal broke, anti-circumcision groups and stunned citizens swiftly put an end to the discussion.

    When the AAP resurfaced the idea last month, the public reacted with similar outrage.

    “It came as a shock to the many, many people who have been working for decades to end FGM here and around the world,” said Taina Bien-Aime, the director of Equality Now, an anti-FGC group based in New York City. “There is no discussion for a human rights violation. You can’t violate just a little less; you can’t discriminate just a little less,” she said. “FGM is FGM is FGM.”

    Bien-Aime, like many anti-FGC advocates, argues that allowing even a mild form of circumcision supports the practice and makes it more difficult to eradicate. She pointed to WHO studies showing that parents unsatisfied with a circumcision will re-circumcise their daughters “over and over again until it’s ‘done properly.’” She added: “Would parents ask for a drop of blood or a teaspoon of blood?” […]

    Under Debate: Female Circumcision | By Ariel Bleicher | Scienceline 09.07.2010

    http://scienceline.org/2010/07/under-debate-female-circumcision/

    „Scienceline is a student-run online magazine published by the Science, Health and Environmental Reporting Program (SHERP) in the Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute at New York University.“

    http://scienceline.org/about

    ::
    ::

    FGM IM ISLAM

    Der Koran erwähnt weder die Beschneidung von Frauen noch diejenige von Männern. Die Sure 95, 4 lautet: „Wahrlich, Wir haben den Menschen in bester Form erschaffen.“ Einige Minderheiten im Islam rechtfertigen die Genitalbeschneidung unter Berufung auf einige wenige Hadithe. Hierbei handelt es sich allerdings oft um eine bestimmte Eingriffsform, die sogenannte „leichte Beschneidung“ (arabisch الخفاض القليل, DMG al-ḫifāḍ al-qalīl). Bei dieser Beschneidungsart findet nur ein leichtes Entfernen des äußerlich sichtbaren Teils der Klitorisvorhaut statt. Wenige andere Gelehrte rechtfertigten als chafd / خفض / ḫafḍ oder chifad / خفاض / ḫifāḍ allerdings auch die Teilamputation der Klitoris oder sogar die Klitoridektomie. Noch schädlichere Formen wie die Infibulation werden vom Islam in keiner Weise legitimiert, auch sind keine islamischen Rechtsquellen vorhanden, die eine Beschneidung der kleinen oder großen Schamlippen erwähnen.

    Alle vier sunnitischen Rechtsschulen (Madhhab) befürworten die Beschneidung von Frauen. Die Schafiiten erklären sie explizit zur religiösen Pflicht. In den Ländern des Nahen Ostens und Ostafrikas, in denen die schafiitische Rechtsschule dominiert, ist die Beschneidung deshalb auch allgemein verbreitet. Auch einer überlieferten hanbalitischen Position zufolge ist die Beschneidung bei Frauen religiöse Pflicht. Für die Malikiten ist die Beschneidung Prophetentradition (sunna) und damit empfehlenswert, für die Hanafiten wie auch für manche Hanbaliten ist sie ehrenhaft (makruma).

    Der am häufigsten zitierte Hadith im Zusammenhang mit der Beschneidung von Frauen gibt eine Diskussion zwischen Mohammed und Umm Habiba [ Umm Ḥabība ] (oder Umm Atiyya, Umm ʿAṭiyya) wieder (das Hadith der Beschneiderin). Diese Frau war als Beschneiderin von Sklavinnen bekannt und gehörte zu den Frauen, die mit Mohammed immigriert waren. Nachdem er sie entdeckt hatte, soll er sie gefragt haben, ob sie immer noch ihren Beruf ausübe. Sie soll dies bejaht und hinzugefügt haben: „Unter der Bedingung, dass es nicht verboten ist und du mir nicht befiehlst, damit aufzuhören“. Mohammed soll ihr darauf erwidert haben:

    „Aber ja, es ist erlaubt. Komm näher, damit ich dich unterweisen kann: Wenn du schneidest, übertreibe nicht (lā tunhikī), denn es macht das Gesicht strahlender (ašraq) und es ist angenehmer (ahzā) für den Ehemann“.

    [ strahlender (ašraq) – sch-r-q – zu: Sonnenaufgang, Osten ]
    مُشْرِق [ mušriq ] {adj.}
    sunny sun-drenched bright radiant shining rosy beaming brilliant

    http://en.bab.la/dictionary/arabic-english/%D9%85%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%82

    Nach anderen Überlieferungen soll Mohammed gesagt haben:

    „Schneide leicht und übertreibe nicht (ašimmī wa-lā tanhikī), denn das ist angenehmer (ahzā) für die Frau und besser (aḥabb) für den Mann“. (Andere Übersetzung: „Nimm ein wenig weg, aber zerstöre es nicht. Das ist besser für die Frau und wird vom Mann bevorzugt.“ – „Die Beschneidung ist eine Sunna für die Männer und Makruma für die Frauen.“)

    Dieser Hadith gilt aber als ḍaʿīf, also als schwach.

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weibliche_Genitalverst%C3%BCmmelung

    ::

    Schafiiten: Sowohl die männliche als auch die weibliche Beschneidung ist absolute religiöse (religionsgesetzliche) Pflicht.

    only recommended for girls, adding that he should scrape but not go too far (ashimmī wa-lā tanhikī). according to the shafiʿi school, circumcision is compulsory (wājib) [ واجب wāǧib ] for both men and women.

    https://books.google.de/books?id=P1UNNapLrx8C&printsec=frontcover&hl=de#v=onepage&q&f=false

    واجب
    wāǧib
    wadschib

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Far%E1%B8%8D

  15. 1+1=2 Says:

    Sachverhalt mit Islambezug? Merke, Dhimmi: Nichts hat mit nichts zu tun!

    Gestern noch wahrnehmbar vorhanden, heute schon im Ghaib (غيب ġayb), im unsichtbaren Seinsbereich: Jumana Nagarwala

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jumana_Nagarwala

    Creating Talk:Jumana Nagarwala

    Wikipedia does not have a talk page with this exact title. Note that the corresponding article Jumana Nagarwala also does not exist.

    To start a page called Talk:Jumana Nagarwala, type in the box below. When you are done, preview the page to check for errors and then save it.

    A page with this title has previously been moved or deleted.

    If you are creating a new page with different content, please continue. If you are recreating a page similar to the previously deleted page, or are unsure, please first contact the user(s) who performed the action(s) listed below.

    17:43, 14 April 2017 Bbb23 (talk | contribs) deleted page Talk:Jumana Nagarwala (G8: Talk page of a deleted page)

    https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Jumana_Nagarwala&action=edit&redlink=1

    Kann das sein, gibt es seit fünf Tagen Löschversuche?

    _____

    Na sowas, jetzt ist der Artikel wieder da.
    Innerhalb von fünf Minuten.
    Gut so.

    Jumana Nagarwala

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jumana_Nagarwala

    _____

    Eine weitere Form von Taqiyya bzw. das taqiyyisch erwünschte Ergebnis der Sprachlosigkeit (islamisches Unsichtbarmachen, islamisch erwünschte Unbesprechbarkeit).

    Ghaib und Ghaib ist Zweierlei

    Den Ghaib gibt es absolut, mutallaq (muṭallaq), und relativ, nisbi (nisbī).

    There are two types of Ghaib:

    [ Erstens: Ghaib al-mutallaq, ġaybi l-muṭallaq ]

    1. Al-ghaib mutallaqa (الغيب المطلق) – Absolute Ghaib refers to all knowledge that is unseen or concealed and is only known to Allah. As stated in the Quran: “And with Him are the keys of the Ghayb (all that is hidden), none knows them but He…” (6:59)

    [ Zweitens: Ghaib al-nisbi, ġaybi n-nisbī ]

    2. Al-ghaib nisbi (الغيب النسبي) – Relative Ghaib is proportionate to an individual and his/her situation; hence it is apparent to some while hidden from others [ see: Islamic FGM ]. An example to illustrate this notion is that of a class in which the students can see the lecturer, hear the content of the lecture, and the conversations that take place in the classroom, while those outside are unaware of the occurrences in the classroom. [ vgl.: Alles, was der Nichtmuslim nicht wissen soll. ] [ see: Taqiyya ]

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Ghaib

  16. ... just another Wikipedian Says:

    Wikipedia

    Jumana Nagarwala

    Dr. Jumana Nagarwala is an Indian-American physician who, in 2017, became the first person charged under the United States law criminalizing female genital mutilation. [1] Nagarwala, licensed in Michigan, was accused of cutting the genitals of two Minnesota girls who traveled to Michigan with their mothers on what they had been told was a „special girls‘ trip“. [2] They were instead taken to a clinic in Livonia, where Nagarwala operated on them. She faces life in prison if convicted.

    Nagarwala is a Dawoodi Bohra, a member of the only religious community in India to regularly practice FGM. [3]

    In 2016, an Australian spiritual leader of that Shia sect has been sent to jail. He assisted the mother and another woman by encouraging them, potential witnesses and other members of the Dawoodi Bohra community to lie to police, or to not disclose relevant information. [4]

    References

    1.
    https://www.justice.gov/usao-edmi/press-release/file/957376/download

    2.
    http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/detroit-city/2017/04/13/doctor-charged-genital-mutilation/100416734/

    3.
    https://www.forbes.com/sites/ritarubin/2017/04/14/doctor-charged-with-female-genital-mutilation-has-published-research-overseen-residents/#cc43ce162241

    4.
    http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/first-person-to-be-imprisoned-over-female-genital-mutilation-in-australia-20160609-gpfm5i.html

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juma l a_Na r garwala

    Wikipedians or editors are the volunteers who write and edit Wikipedia’s articles

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedians

  17. 1+1=2 Says:

    [ Correct name: Nagarwala, wrong spelling: Na r garwala ]

    Dr. Jumana Nagarwala is an Indian-American physician who, in 2017, became the first person charged under the United States law criminalizing female genital mutilation. [1] Nagarwala, licensed in Michigan, was accused of cutting the genitals of two Minnesota girls who traveled to Michigan with their mothers on what they had been told was a „special girls‘ trip“. [2] They were instead taken to a clinic in Livonia, where Nagarwala operated on them. She faces life in prison if convicted.

    Nagarwala is a Dawoodi Bohra, a member of the only religious community in India to regularly practice FGM. [3]

    In 2016, an Australian spiritual leader of that Shia sect has been sent to jail. He assisted the mother and another woman by encouraging them, potential witnesses and other members of the Dawoodi Bohra community to lie to police, or to not disclose relevant information. [4]

    References

    [1] https://www.justice.gov/usao-edmi/press-release/file/957376/download

    [2] http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/detroit-city/2017/04/13/doctor-charged-genital-mutilation/100416734/

    [3] https://www.forbes.com/sites/ritarubin/2017/04/14/doctor-charged-with-female-genital-mutilation-has-published-research-overseen-residents/#cc43ce162241

    [4] http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/first-person-to-be-imprisoned-over-female-genital-mutilation-in-australia-20160609-gpfm5i.html

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Juma l a_Nagarwala

    [ Correct name: Nagarwala, wrong spelling: Na R garwala ]

    URL falsch Na r garwala – auch im Text ein “ R “ zuviel.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Juma l a_Na r garwala&action=history

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juma l a_Na r garwala

    Names should be written correctly: Nagarwala (not: Nagarwala)

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Juma l a_N a rgarwala

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Juma l a_Nagarwala

  18. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    ( “ religious removal “ )
    ( “ religious practice “ )

    Detroit Free Press 17.04.2017 | 3:30 p.m. | updated 9:33 p.m.
    By: Tresa Baldas

    Detroit Free Press Published 3:30 p.m. ET April 17, 2017 | Updated 9:33 p.m. ET April 17, 2017

    Lawyer: Genital procedure on girls was part of ‚religious practice

    (…) In the criminal complaint, the FBI classified the doctor as a member of a specific religious community. They did not name or mention Islam. (…)

    http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/detroit/2017/04/17/doctor-admits-genital-procedures-girls-denies-cutting/100574190/

    ::

    ( “ religious practice “ )
    ( “ religious removal “ )

    FOX 2 Detroit 17.-18.04.2017
    By: Hannah Saunders

    Livonia doctor’s defense denies female genital mutilation; calls it religious removal

    (…) The defense argued, claiming no female genital mutilation took place, instead, a religious removal of a mucus membrane from the genitals (…)

    http://www.fox2detroit.com/news/local-news/249102342-story

    ::
    ::

    Droit International (Le blog d’information sur le droit international) 15.04.2017

    Une médecin inculpée pour mutilations génitales

    (…) Jumana Nagarwala, 44 ans, est accusée d’avoir réalisé ces mutilations génitales dans un cabinet médical de Livonia, dans la banlieue de Detroit, sur plusieurs fillettes âgées de six à huit ans (…) L’inculpation d’une urgentiste, dans le nord américain, pour avoir excisé plusieurs fillettes, est une première aux USA. (…)

    http://droitinternational.ek.la/une-medecin-inculpee-pour-mutilations-genitales-a129841840

  19. from Detroit Says:

    Female genital mutilation in the United States
    Prosecutions

    A doctor working at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit was charged in April 2017 after allegedly performing FGM in a medical clinic in Livonia, Michigan, on two girls who traveled there from Minnesota with their parents.[17] She denied the charge.[18], this was also the first Federal prosecution for Female genital mutilation in history.

    [17]
    Criminal Complaint, The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, 12 April 2017.

    https://www.justice.gov/opa/press-release/file/957381/download

    [18]
    Michigan Doctor Is Accused of Genital Cutting of 2 Girls, By Jacey Fortin. The New York Times, 13 April 2017.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_genital_mutilation_in_the_United_States

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_genital_mutilation_in_the_United_States#Prosecutions_and_asylum

  20. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    „Circumcision is obligatory upon men and women according to us.“

    (Die Beschneidung bei Männern und Frauen ist unserer Auffassung nach verbindlich vorgeschrieben.)

    shafiifiqh
    .
    .

    Islam Question and Answer
    General Supervisor: Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid

    – Principles of Fiqh » Jurisprudence and Islamic Rulings » Acts of Worship » Purity » Natural character and instinct of the human creation.

    60314: Circumcision of girls and some doctors’ criticism thereof

    […] Circumcision is one of the Sunnahs of the fitrah, and it is for both males and females, except that is it obligatory for males and Sunnah and good in the case of women. End quote […]

    It is sufficient for us Muslims that something be proven to be from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), then we will follow it, and we are certain that it is beneficial and not harmful. If it were harmful, Allaah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would not have prescribed it for us. […]

    Shaykh Jaad al-Haqq ‘Ali Jaad al-Haqq, the former Shaykh of al-Azhar, said:

    Hence the fuqaha’ of all madhhabs are agreed that circumcision for both men and woman is part of the fitrah of Islam and one of the symbols of the faith, and it is something praiseworthy. There is no report from any of the Muslim fuqaha’, according to what we have studied in their books that are available to us, to say that circumcision is forbidden for men or women, or that it is not permissible, or that it is harmful for females, if it is done in the manner that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught to Umm Habeebah in the report quoted above.

    Then he said:

    From the above it is clear that the circumcision of girls – which is the topic under discussion here – is part of the fitrah of Islam, and the way it is to be done is the method that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) explained. It is not right to abandon his teachings for the view of anyone else, even if that is a doctor, because medicine is knowledge and knowledge is always developing and changing. End quote.

    In the fatwa of Shaykh ‘Atiyah Saqar – the former heard of the Fatwa Committee in al-Azhar – it says:

    The calls which urge the banning of female circumcision are call that go against Islam, because there is no clear text in the Qur’aan or Sunnah and there is no opinion of the fuqaha’ that says that female circumcision is haraam. Female circumcision is either obligatory or recommended. […]

    https://islamqa.info/en/60314

    __
    __

    [ Islam-QA Fatwa 60314: Circumcision of girls and some doctors’ criticism thereof ]

    Fatwa 60314

    Nowadays we hear that many doctors denounce the circumcision of girls, and say that it harms them physically and psychologically, and that circumcision is an inherited custom that has no basis is Islam.

    Praise be to Allah.

    Firstly:

    Circumcision is not an inherited custom as some people claim, rather it is prescribed in Islam and the scholars are unanimously agreed that it is prescribed. Not a single Muslim scholar – as far as we know – has said that circumcision is not prescribed. (…)

    Secondly:

    With regard to the criticism of circumcision by some doctors, and their claim that it is harmful both physically and psychologically,

    This criticism of theirs is not valid. It is sufficient for us Muslims that something be proven to be from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), then we will follow it, and we are certain that it is beneficial and not harmful. If it were harmful, Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would not have prescribed it for us. (…)

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    [ Shafi‘i Institute, http://www.shafiifiqh.com/what-is-the-ruling-on-circumcision-for-women ]

    [ hier bei: Evangelische Zentralstelle für Weltanschauungsfragen (EZW) ]

    Materialdienst 9/2012
    Thomas von der Osten-Sacken, Oliver M. Piecha
    Zur Beschneidungsdebatte nach dem Kölner Gerichtsurteil

    […]

    Islam und FGM

    Auf den ersten Blick scheint es doch so klar: In einer gemeinsam verabschiedeten Resolution erklären CDU, SPD, FDP und GRÜNE, sie halten „die Beschneidung männlicher Kinder, die weltweit sozial akzeptiert wird, für nicht vergleichbar mit nachhaltig schädlichen und sittenwidrigen Eingriffen in die körperliche Integrität von Kindern und Jugendlichen wie etwa die weibliche Genitalverstümmlung, die wir verurteilen“.3 Nun wird die Entfernung von Klitorisvorhaut oder Klitoris (zwei Formen sogenannter „leichter“ Verstümmelung, die ebenfalls von der WHO als FGM identifiziert worden sind) in vielen islamisch geprägten Ländern keineswegs als ein „sittenwidriger Eingriff“ angesehen, sondern als religiös und traditionell ebenso bedeutendes Ritual wie die männliche Beschneidung.4 Wie bereits erwähnt, unterscheiden die Schafiiten, eine der vier sunnitischen Rechtsschulen, dabei in ihren Rechtsgutachten nicht zwischen den Geschlechtern. So stellt ein schafiitisches Rechtsinstitut unmissverständlich fest: „Circumcision is obligatory upon men and women according to us.“ (Die Beschneidung bei Männern und Frauen ist unserer Auffassung nach verbindlich vorgeschrieben.)5 Entsprechend hoch ist in allen islamischen Ländern und Regionen, in denen diese Rechtsschule dominiert,6 das Vorkommen von FGM, ob etwa in Ägypten, Indonesien, am Horn von Afrika oder in den kurdischen Gebieten des Irak und Iran. Bewusst möchten schafiitische Rechtsgelehrte die von ihnen propagierte Praxis von anderen Formen weiblicher Genitalbeschneidung unterschieden wissen: „We would like to point out that this ‚circumcision’ is not what is commonly known as female genital mutilation.“ (Wir möchten darauf hinweisen, dass diese „Zirkumzision“ nicht das ist, was gemeinhin als weibliche Genitalverstümmelung bekannt ist.)7 Sie berufen sich dabei, wie andere Rechtsschulen auch, in denen Genitalbeschneidung an Frauen allerdings nicht als obligatorisch gefordert wird, auf verschiedene Hadithe, also Aussprüche des Propheten Mohammed, die überliefert wurden, aber nicht im Koran stehen. Den entsprechenden Hadithen wird dabei je nach Rechtsschule eine höhere oder niedrigere Relevanz zugemessen. Vor allem zwei Hadithe spielen bezüglich der Beschneidung eine zentrale Rolle, die immer wieder, auch in entsprechenden Rechtsgutachten (Fatwas), zitiert werden: 1. Eine Frau praktizierte die Beschneidung in Medina. Der Prophet sagte zu ihr: Schneide nicht stark, da das besser für eine Frau und wünschenswerter für einen Ehemann ist. 2. Die Beschneidung ist verbindlich (Sunna) für Männer und Ehrensache für Frauen.8

    3 Zitiert nach Domradio vom 20.7.2012, http://www.domradio.de/aktuell/83045/im-wortlaut.html.
    4 Sami A. Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Islamic Law and the Issue of Male and Female Circumcision, Third World Legal Studies: Vol. 13, 1995.
    5 Shafi‘i Institute, http://www.shafiifiqh.com/what-is-the-ruling-on-circumcision-for-women.
    6 Eine Übersichtskarte der Rechtsschulen und ihrer Verbreitung findet sich im englischsprachigen Wikepdia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shafi‘i.
    7 Shafi‘i Institute: What is the Ruling on Circumcision for Women?, a.a.O.
    8 Vgl. Answering Islam: Circumcision, http://answering-islam.org/Index/C/circumcision.html.

    http://www.ezw-berlin.de/html/15_2592.php

    Die Evangelische Zentralstelle für Weltanschauungsfragen (EZW) ist die zentrale wissenschaftliche Studien-, Dokumentations-, Auskunfts- und Beratungsstelle der Evangelischen Kirche in Deutschland (EKD) für die religiösen und weltanschaulichen Strömungen der Gegenwart.

    http://www.ezw-berlin.de/html/104.php

    __

    What is the Ruling on Circumcision for Women?

    Shafi’i Fiqh > Shafiifiqh.com

    Question:

    Assalamu Alaikum
    What is the mu`tamad qowl (relied upon position) of the Shafi`ee Mazhab regarding the khatnah (circumcision) of women? Is it wajib (obligatory) or sunnat?

    Also, what if a woman was ignorant if it being wajib will it be incumbent on her during her advanced age to perform khatnah?

    Jazakumullah

    Answer:
    الحمد لله رب العالمين ، وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين، وبالله التوفيق

    الختان واجب على الرجال والنساء عندنا (المجموع: 1: 164)
    ويمنع من ختان الكبيرة لخوف التلف (الروضة: 3: 384)

    Circumcision is obligatory upon men and women according to us (i.e. the Shafi’is). (Majmu’ of Imam An-Nawawi 1:164) The circumcision is wajib upon men and women according to the rājih qawl of Shāfiʿī madhhab. In a situation a woman is in her advanced age, it is not permissible to circumcise her if it may harm her (al-Rauḍah of Imam An-Nawawi: 3: 384).
    والله أعلم
    Allah knows best

    Answered by:
    Sidi Abdullah Muḥammad al-Marbūqī al-Shāfiʿī

    Checked by:
    Al-Ustāż Fauzi ibn Abd Rahman

    [ Shafii Fiqh – siehe aber: „Rulings from your site regarding female circumcision appear to have been taken down.“ ]

    http://www.shafiifiqh.com/what-is-the-ruling-on-circumcision-for-women/

    http://islamqa.org/shafii/shafiifiqh/30239

    __

    [ Eine gute Frage (Fragen sind immer gut) an Shafii Fiqh ]

    [ Question ]

    Rulings from your site regarding female circumcision appear to have been taken down. Is there is a change in opinion concerning female circumcision from a Shafii point of view? What do you say about issuing a fatwa on this issue which prohibits the practice?

    [ Answer ]

    In Maratib al-Ijma‘ p. 157, Ibn Hazm cited that there is an established consensus (ar: ijma‘) that circumcision for women is permissible. This ijma‘ is related by other scholars too. In the Sacred Law, ijma‘ is a binding proof, and it is not permissible for any scholar to go against it.

    In Nihayah 8/35, after mentioning the official position of the Shafi’i School, that circumcision is obligatory for both men and women, Ramli defines what it means for a woman. He says that it is the removal of some skin from the clitoral prepuce. This is also mentioned by Ibn Hajar in Tuhfah 9/198.

    [ Nun wird man erfinderisch und behauptet, durchaus in Fortsetzung der von Scheich Nuh Ha Mim Keller ( „not the clitoris itself, as some mistakenly assert“ ) vorgegebenen Richtung, mit baẓr ( بظر ) sei, jedenfalls in Bezug auf den islamischen Befehl zur Beschneidung, nicht die Klitoris gemeint, – arabisch baẓr -, sondern die Klitorisvorhaut ( qulfa al-baẓr ), also eine FGM Typ Ia will man (angeblich) durchsetzen, wir ergänzen: zunächst durchsetzen. ]

    In these passages, the word „bazr“ is mentioned. Sahib al-Misbah al-Munir mentions that the „bazr“ in circumcision is the prepuce. Thus, what is intended is a part of the prepuce surrounding the clitoris and not the clitoris itself.

    [ Abenteuerlich argumentiert. Die bekannten Hadithe geben das Wort Klitorisvorhaut einfach nicht her. Und jeder kann wissen, was gemeint ist mit baẓr ( بظر ). ]

    https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A8%D8%B8%D8%B1

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klitoris

    In Sunan Abi Dawud and Tabarani’s al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, it is related that the Prophet Muhammad (upon him be peace) said,

    أَشِمِّي لَا تُنْهِكِي فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ أَحْظَى لِلْمَرْأَةِ وَأَحَبُّ لِلْبَعْلِ

    „Leave it bulging, do not exaggerate in cutting. Indeed, that is more enjoyable for the woman, and the husband will like it better.“

    [ Mohammed billigt oder verlangt das Beschneiden – die FGM – hier müssen Intaktivisten und andere Kinderrechtler widersprechen. Die Scharia, der Islam integriert die FGM – darum geht es im Strafprozess: United States of America v. JUMANA NAGARWALA ]

    Some have declared Tabarani’s chain to be authentic. While others criticized the authenticity of this narration. Here, it is not being cited to establish a basis for a practice in the Sacred Law, the aforementioned ijma‘ establishes that. The narration describes the manner in which the practice is to be performed. It clarifies that the procedure is minor and the reduction is slight; in fact, the verbs used are commands, which indicate obligation. Meaning, to go beyond this contravenes what the Prophet (upon him be peace) commanded.

    [ Islamic FGM = ḫifāḍ / ḫafḍ – anglisiert khifaD / khafD – es glaube niemand, die Klitoris sei durch JUMANA NAGARWALA, MUI, Scheich Keller, schafiifiqh usw. auf Dauer geschützt. Man beteuert, dass ḫifāḍ / ḫafḍ Kürzung der Klitorisvorhaut bedeuten würde, also eine FGM Typ Ia – die wir als Genitalverstümmelung definieren und nicht straffrei stellen dürfen. ]

    What we have mentioned above is not FGM. In Arabic, the practice we are talking about is called „khafd,“ meaning, a reduction i.e. of the clitoral hood. This is actually, according to many health experts, an accepted medical procedure; something that when done properly, women are satisfied with.

    [ Jetzt geht es an die Begrifflichkeiten. Man will beschneiden – und nicht verstümmeln. Chitan al-inath / sunat perempuan sei ein harmloses religiöses Ritual, keine Verstümmelung (mutilation). ]

    Some individuals or organizations in Europe and other places argue that circumcision/unhooding is genital mutilation. The corollary of this line of argument is generally that it should be banned. This is obviously something that Muslims disagree with.

    [ I agree, we disagree! Beschneiderinnen in den Knast. ]

    [ Nun wird die FGM nicht nur per Hadith, sondern sogar mit dem Koran begründet – das ist kühn, aber durchaus möglich. ]

    Allah commanded the Prophet Abraham (upon him be peace) to circumcise, and Allah says in the Qur’an, „Follow the way of Abraham, as a pure monotheist.“ (Surah al-Nahl 123) And circumcision is part of his way; it is a ritual of obedience to God first performed by the father of the monotheistic faiths.

    Also, it was practiced and advised in the time of the Prophet Muhammad (upon him be peace), for both men and women.
    The official position of the Shafi’i School is that it is obligatory for a woman. There is also a weaker opinion that Imam Nawawi relates in Rawdah 10/180 that it is recommended. This is the opinion maintained by other scholars who considered that it is recommended or simply a noble deed, like Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Malik. A woman following the Shafi’i School could make taqlid of these opinions. She would thereby be omitting a meritorious act, but not an obligation.

    [ Schafiitische Rechtsschule: Die Frau muss beschnitten sein – das Mädchen muss beschnitten werden – das hat der Scheich gesagt, der für die DarusSalam Foundation, Lombard (Vorort von Chicago), Illinois, USA arbeitet und seine Ausbildung in Islamic Law (Scharia) in Südafrika absolvierte, bei: Dar ‚Ulum al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah, Strand, Cape Town · Kapstadt. ]

    For a Muslim scholar to issue a fatwa against it, that violates the aforementioned consensus, and to violate consensus is impermissible. Such a fatwa would also disregard many experts from the medical community who have expressed the benefits that such procedures have for women.

    [ Rasante Wendung, diese Schlusskurve … die Fachleute der modernen Medizin würden diese Form von Frauenbeschneidung für gesundheitsförderlich und und dem Wohlbefinden dienlich halten.

    Zwischen minderjährig und volljährig (18 Jahre!), zwischen Mädchen und Frau hat Scheich Yaqub Abdurrahman nicht unterschieden.

    Damit dürfte man, leider, schon bald zum Aushandeln des rechten Alters zur Einwilligung (age of consent) kommen, im Prinzip also wie bei der Jungenbeschneidung. Ob Mädchen oder Junge: Keine Beschneidung unter achtzehn!

    Auch jeden auf Erwachsenen (Mensch über 18 Jahre) lastenden Gruppenzwang zum Beschnittensein und Beschnittenwerden hat der freiheitliche Rechtsstaat zu unterbinden. ]

    And Allah knows best.

    [ And UDHR knows better. ( UDHR = AEMR 10.12.1948 ) ]

    Answered by: Shaykh Yaqub Abdurrahman

    http://www.shafiifiqh.com/question-details.aspx?qstID=173

    Scheich Yaqub Abdurrahman – Facebook

    ___ps://www.facebook.com/yaqub.abdurrahman

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    FGM-Typ-Ia-Bewerber Scheich Nuh Ha Mim Keller …

    .

    .

    … in bester Gesellschaft mit dem Cheftheologen der Muslimbruderschaft Scheich Yusuf al-Qaradawi.

    .

    http://s51.photobucket.com/user/faqir/media/3_scholars.jpg.html

  21. Machandelboom Says:

    Dr. Jumana Nagarwala, die familiäre Bindungen nach Kenia hat, wurde verhaftet, als sie gerade ins Flugzeug einsteigen wollte. Die Ärztin wollte zwei ihrer Kinder besuchen, die in Nairobi auf ein Internat gehen.

    Die Notfallmedizinerin und islamische Ritualbeschneiderin habe, wie ihre Anwältin Shannon Smith berichtete, am Genital beider Mädchen etwas Haut entfernt. Diese habe Nagarwala in Gaze eingewickelt und den Eltern der Mädchen übergeben, welche die Hautstücke, nach einem religiösen Brauch der indisch-muslimischen Dawudi Bohra, beerdigen, erzählte Smith. Vgl.:

    US doctor accused of cutting girls‘ genitals has ties to Kenya | Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenia) 20.04.2017

    http://www.nation.co.ke/news/US-doctor-accused-of-FGM-Kenya-links/1056-3896468-format-xhtml-9on1olz/index.html

    _
    _

    Robert Snell‏ @robertsnellnews 18. Apr. 2017

    Genital mutilation case doctor a member of [ Dawoodi Bohra ] Muslim sect linked to Australian mutilation case in 2015 http://detne.ws/2pu2zfV

    https://twitter.com/robertsnellnews?lang=de

  22. Michigan Says:

    A courtroom sketch shows U.S. Magistrate Judge Monica Mazjoub, center, and Dr. Jumana Nagarwala, right, on Monday, April 17, 2017

    .

    .

    http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/wayne/2017/04/17/prosecutors-genital-mutilation-part-incredibly-secretive-ritual/100574696/

  23. Cees van der Duin Says:

    FGM vor einem Gericht in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika, da war noch ein Fall, jedenfalls beinahe. Im Jahr 2002, und die etwas gründlichere Aufdeckung der Sache zog sich bis 2005.

    Kalifornien. Ein gewisser Todd Cameron Bertrang, ein Anbieter von Piercings und Body-Modifikationen, machte jemandem das Angebot, weibliche Genitalverstümmelung durchzuführen, female genital mutilation, FGM.

    Die angeblich zu beschneidenden Mädchen, acht und 12 Jahre alt, waren allerdings – zum Glück – keine realen Kinder. Halten wir fest: Ja, Bertrang war bereit, zwei Mädchen genital zu verstümmeln. Der Preis wurde genannt, man war handelseinig, doch statt Handschlag klickten die Handschellen. Der vermeintliche Auftraggeber war ein verdeckter Ermittler der Polizei. Gute Arbeit.

    In 2002, a Santa Clarita man was caught in an FBI sting when he agreed through an undercover agent to perform genital mutilation on children ages 8 and 12.

    The man told investigators he had performed more “female circumcisions” than anyone in the Western world, though authorities were unable to corroborate that. He and his girlfriend pleaded guilty to conspiracy and possessing child pornography.

    ( For the first time in the U.S., a doctor is charged with female genital mutilation. Here’s how the law came to be | By: Alene Tchekmedyian | Los Angeles Times 18.04.2017 )

    http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-female-genital-mutilation-detroit-2017-story.html

    ___
    ___

    SACRAMENTO, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Dec. 23, 2002–The Medical Board of California’s Operation Safe Medicine (OSM), in conjunction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, served a search warrant on December 19, 2002 at the Santa Clarita residence of an unlicensed person, Todd Cameron Bertrang, for agreeing to perform female circumcisions. The procedure is an extremely painful, traumatizing mutilation of females that leaves them permanently disfigured. He also performs a similar procedure on males. He was charged with violating Business and Professions Code section 2053, a felony, by risking great bodily harm, serious injury or death by practicing medicine without a license. Bertrang was arrested and booked into Santa Clarita Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department and will appear in court on January 21, 2003. […]

    The investigation has revealed that Bertrang attracted potential patients through Web sites and may have performed various unlicensed procedures that include male and female circumcisions at his residence since 1997. […]

    ( Medical Board of California Arrests Santa Clarita Resident for Unlicensed Practice of Medicine )

    http://www.circumstitions.com/news/News7.html

    The Medical Board of California’s press release:

    Medical Board of California Arrests Santa Clarita Resident
    For Unlicensed Practice of Medicine

    SACRAMENTO—The Medical Board of California’s Operation Safe Medicine (OSM), in conjunction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, served a search warrant on December 19, 2002 at the Santa Clarita residence of an unlicensed person, Todd Cameron Bertrang, for agreeing to perform female circumcisions.

    http://forum.forteantimes.com/index.php?threads/female-circumcision-genital-mutilation-fgm.13887/

    ___
    ___

    U.S. Department of Justice 08.06.2005

    TWO WHO PLOTTED TO PERFORM FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION SENTENCED TO FEDERAL PRISON

    Prison Terms also Result from Child Pornography, Obscenity Charges

    Los Angeles, CA – Two Southern California residents who agreed to perform female genital mutilation on two minors were sentenced this afternoon to federal prison terms after pleading guilty to conspiracy, child pornography and obscenity charges. […]

    Court documents show that Bertrang had a business that offered body piercing and body modifications. After seeing Bertrang’s website, where he advertised these services, an undercover FBI agent contacted Bertrang in the fall of 2002. In a series of communications, Bertrang offered to perform female genital mutilation on two fictitious minor children, ages 8 and 12, for $8,000. During the investigation, Bertrang stated to investigators that he had performed more “female circumcisions” than anyone in the Western World, a claim that investigations have been unable to corroborate.

    The case against Bertrang and Faulkinbury is the first case filed pursuant to the Federal Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act of 1995, which outlawed the circumcision or removal of certain sexual organs of girls under the age of 18 unless it is necessary for the health of the patient and only if it is performed by a licensed medical practitioner. Neither Bertrang nor Faulkinbury is licensed to practice medicine in the state of California. […]

    Release No. 05-089

    https://www.justice.gov/archive/usao/cac/Pressroom/pr2005/089.html

    ___ps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p9T-FUqfyzc

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    Und schon wieder hat, sozusagen, der Täter das falsche Geschlecht – Bertrang ist Mann.

    Die rituelle Mädchenbeschneidung aber, die FGM, wird – Stichwort rituelle Gender-Apartheid – grundsätzlich durch eine Frau durchgeführt, eigentlich stets durch eine Angehörige einer ebenfalls Mädchen beschneidenden Kultur (will heißen: die Beschneiderin ist beschnitten; Stichwort: Pubertätsritual) oder, und meistens, sogar durch eine Angehörige der gleichen Ethnie und Religion.

    Etwa in Kurdistan wissen viele Männer nicht genau, wie sehr ihre Frauen beschnitten (verstümmelt) worden sind, oder ob überhaupt. In Indonesien etwa wird das Mädchen unter einem sehr großen Tuch beschnitten, (mindestens …) von außen man wenig.

    Zwei Beispiele, 1., Beschneiderin, Mutter und Mädchen stammen alle aus der, riesengroßen, indonesischen-schafiitischen Kultur.

    2., Sydney und Detroit: Beschneiderin, Mutter und Mädchen leben innerhalb der kleinen, radikal parallelkulturellen (beispielsweise absolut endogamen) Wagenburg von Dawudi Bohra.

  24. Kızılırmak Says:

    :::::

    ABD’de Kadın Sünnetiyle Suçlanan Doktor Ömür Boyu Hapis Yatabilir

    Jumana Nagarwala adlı doktor, Detroit kentinde 6-12 yaş arasındaki kız çocuklarını sünnet etmekle suçlandı.

    Haberler – BBC Türkçe 14.04.2017

    ABD’de Michigan eyaletinin Detroit kentinde bir kadın doktor, 6-12 yaş arasındaki kız çocuklarını sünnet etmekle suçlandı.

    Jumana Nagarwala […] Michigan […]

    http://www.haberler.com/abd-de-kadin-sunnetiyle-suclanan-doktor-omur-boyu-9498811-haberi/

    :::
    :::

    ::

  25. Edward von Roy Says:

    Burhani Medical Clinic, the office of Dr. Fakhruddin Attar, is seen in Livonia, Mich.
    [ Attar’s clinic, BMC ]

    .

    [ Woodcreek Professional Building, location of the Burhani Medical Clinic and offices of Dr. Fakhruddin S. Attar, MD, Internal Medicine, on Farmington Rd. in Livonia. ]

    Dr. Fakhruddin S. Attar, MD

    http://doctor.webmd.com/doctor/fakhruddin-attar-md-15a48a72-b93f-4d46-8d6e-7f95aaba1aa0-overview

    .
    .

    2nd doctor, wife arrested in genital mutilation case

    By: Robert Snell
    The Detroit News Published 11:02 a.m. ET April 21, 2017 | Updated 2 hours ago

    Federal agents arrested a second doctor and his wife Friday in a widening conspiracy involving female genital mutilation and members of a Muslim sect.

    Dr. Fakhruddin Attar is accused of letting Dr. Jumana Nagarwala perform mutilations at his Burhani Medical Clinic on Farmington Road. His wife, office manager Farida Attar, also was arrested and is accused of helping Nagarwala perform the mutilations, according to a 14-page complaint unsealed Friday in federal court. […]

    Attar, 52, and his 50-year-old wife were arraigned in federal court Friday afternoon and ordered jailed until a detention hearing Wednesday. Both were dressed in the distinctive attire of Dawoodi Bohra members — he wore a white cap with gold trim, while his wife wore a long teal dress and head covering with pink fringe.

    “Dr. Attar is not aware of any crimes committed at his clinic,” defense lawyer Mary Chartier told reporters outside court. […]

    http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/detroit-city/2017/04/21/second-doctor-arrested-genital-mutilation/100741450/

    Complaint reveals new surveillance video in genital mutilation case
    Tresa Baldas , Detroit Free Press Published 1:58 p.m. ET April 21, 2017 | Updated 5 hours ago

    http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/wayne/2017/04/21/genital-mutilation-video-complaint/100748668/

    2nd doctor arrested, wife charged in connection with female genital mutilation investigation

    fox2detroit | By: Dave Spencer
    Posted:Apr 21 2017 11:12AM EDT
    Updated:Apr 21 2017 05:11PM EDT

    (WJBK) – A second doctor has been arrested in connection with a female genital mutilation investigation in Detroit.

    Fakhruddin Attar, 53, and his wife, Farida Attar, 50, of Livonia, were both arrested and have been charged with conspiring to perform female genital mutilations on minor girls out of Dr. Attar’s medical clinic in Livonia.

    Both husband and wife were arrested Friday morning and are due in court later this afternoon.

    Authorities say Dr. Attar owned Burhani Medical Clinic in Livonia, which is where a Detroit emergency room doctor who was arrested last week is accused of performing FGM on minor girls. Authorities say Dr. Attar’s wife is employed at Burhani Medical Clinic as an office manager. Authorities believe the husband and wife arranged and assisted in the FGM procedures performed by the Detroit doctor, Dr. Jumana Nagarwala. […]

    http://www.fox2detroit.com/news/local-news/249924325-story

    __

    .

    .
    .

    Department of Justice
    Office of Public Affairs
    Friday, April 21, 2017

    Detroit Doctor and Wife Arrested and Charged with Conspiring to Perform Female Genital Mutilation

    […] Fakhruddin Attar, M.D., 53, and his wife, Farida Attar, 50, both of Livonia, Michigan, are charged with conspiring to perform female genital mutilations on minor girls out of Fakhruddin Attar’s medical clinic in Livonia. […]

    he defendants are alleged to have conspired with Jumana Nagarwala, M.D., who was arrested in Detroit on April 12, 2017, and ordered detained on April 17, 2017, pending trial. Nagarwala, Fakhruddin Attar and Farida Attar are believed to be the first people charged under 18 U.S.C. 116, which criminalizes FGM.

    A complaint is merely an allegation and the defendant is presumed innocent unless and until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt in a court of law. […]

    https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/detroit-doctor-and-wife-arrested-and-charged-conspiring-perform-female-genital-mutilation

    Attar et al. Complaint

    United States of America v. D-1 FAKHRUDDIN ATTAR, D-2 FARIDA ATTAR, Defendants

    CRIMINAL COMPLAINT
    20.04.2017

    [ BMC = Burhani Medical Clinic ]

    https://www.justice.gov/opa/press-release/file/959361/download

  26. Edward von Roy Says:

    .

    Another Doctor And His Wife Have Been Charged With Conspiring To Perform Female Genital Mutilation In The US

    BuzzFeed 21.04.2017, at 7:21 p.m.
    By: Tamerra Griffin | BuzzFeed News Reporter

    https://www.buzzfeed.com/tamerragriffin/doctor-and-his-wife-charged-female-genital-mutilation-us?utm_term=.ncN7Op82o#.ojQB2V6YW

    .
    .

    FIRST DO NO HARM?

    Second Detroit Doctor Arrested for Female Genital Mutilation

    Fakhruddin Attar owns the clinic where Dr. Jumana Nagarwala allegedly performed illegal surgeries on girls as young as six. Attar’s wife was also arrested.

    By: Gaby Del Valle
    The Daily Beast 21.04.2017 7:07 PM ET

    http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2017/04/21/second-detroit-doctor-arrested-for-female-genital-mutilation.html

    .

  27. Edward von Roy Says:

    .

    .

    .
    .

    Sahiyo

    https://sahiyo.com/

  28. Kızılırmak Says:

    :::

    India-Born Doctor, Wife Arrested In US Genital Mutilation Probe

    NDTV New Delhi Television | Updated: April 22, 2017 07:32 IST

    […] The Attars were arrested this morning.

    The charges come a week after Indian-origin doctor Jumana Nagarwala, 44, of Michigan, was charged with performing FGM on minor girls.

    Ms Nagarwala and the Attars are believed to be the first people charged under federal US law, which criminalises FGM.

    According to an online physician directory, Fakhruddin graduated from the Baroda Medical College in Gujarat, India in 1988.

    The charges say that Ms Nagarwala used to perform the medical procedure on minor girls at Burhani Medical Clinic (BMC) in Michigan that was owned and operated by Fakhruddin.

    Fakhruddin’s wife was employed at BMC as an officer manager.

    The compliant against the Attars said that the couple arranged and assisted in the female genital mutilation of minor females performed by Nagarwala. While they allowed their clinic to be used by Nagarwala to perform the procedures, Farida assisted Ms Nagarwala during the female genital mutilation procedures. […]

    The number of girls under 18 at risk for FGM in the US has quadrupled since 1997. […]

    http://www.ndtv.com/indians-abroad/india-born-doctor-wife-arrested-in-us-genital-mutilation-probe-1684494

    New Delhi Television is, and has been for more than a quarter century, a pioneer in India’s news television. Founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy and Prannoy Roy, NDTV is today the most watched and the most credible and respected news and lifestyle network in India.

    http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/corporatepage/index.aspx

    :::
    :::

    Medical Professionals Ijtemaa and SBMAA founding – report
    March 17, 2015 SBMAA Webmaster
    1 Comment

    :::::

    […] Shaikh Fakhruddin Attar MD, MS […]

    SBMAA
    Saifee Burhani Medical Association America

    Founded 14th March 2015 with Dua and Raza Mubarak of his Holiness, Syedna Aali Qadr Mufaddal Saifuddin TUS, 53rd Dail ul-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohra Muslim Community

    […] The mission of the Saifee Burhani Medical Association is to leverage the experience, skill, and potential of medical professionals in the Dawoodi Bohra community, to achieve three aims:

    1. engage in khidmat of mumineen, by desiging and implementing jamaat-level initiatives for long-term health and preventive care, by leveraging our expertise, local clinical experiences, and economies of scale;

    2. encourage and support aspiring medical professionals by providing mentorship, guidance, education, […]

    ___p://sbmedical.org/medical-professionals-ijtemaa-and-sbmaa-founding-report/

    Members | Saifee Burhani Medical Association of America [ SBMAA ]
    sbmedical.org/members/
    Business City: Livonia. State: MI. Country: United States.

    ___p://sbmedical.org/login/?redirect_to=http%3A%2F%2Fsbmedical.org%2Fmembers%2F

    Shaikh Fakhruddin Attar MD, MS
    Middle Name: M. Shabbir

    Shaikh Fakhruddin Attar MD, MS | Saifee Burhani Medical Association …
    sbmedical.org/user/shaikh.fakhruddin.attar.md%2C.ms./

    Degree and/or Certifications. MD, MS
    Medical/Professional
    Specialty: Internal Medicine
    Business Address: 29247 Farmington Road. Business City. Livonia.

    ___p://sbmedical.org/user/shaikh.fakhruddin.attar.md%2C.ms./

    Attar in West Bloomfield, MI
    Fakhruddin Shabbir Attar

    http://www.whitepages.com/name/Attar/West-Bloomfield-MI

    Anjuman-e-Najmi mosque on Orchard Lake Road in Farmington Hills
    Andschuman-e-Nadschmi-Moschee, Orchard Lake Road, Farmington Hills

    Jamaat Committee – Anjuman-e-Najmi, Detroit

    OFFICERS
    Janab Aamil Saheb
    President
    Mufaddal Bhai Saheb Bin Yahya Bhai Saheb

    Shaikh Fakhruddin Attar
    Treasurer [ Schatzmeister ]

    DIRECTORS [ insgesamt neun ]
    Shaikh Fakhruddin Attar
    Shaikh Moiz Nagarwala

    ___p://www.detroitjamaat.org/detroitjamaatorg/website_contest_milad_98/entry6/www/organizations/jamaat.asp

    Niyaz Committee
    Sk Fakhruddin bhai Attar
    Asst. Treasurer

    ___p://www.detroitjamaat.org/detroitjamaatorg/website_contest_milad_98/entry6/www/organizations/niyaz.asp

    Anjuman-e-Najmi, Detroit
    Burhani Women

    Zoujat Al-Amil-al-Hadir
    President

    Farida Bai Shaikh Fakhruddin Bhai Attar [ FARIDA ATTAR ]
    Joint Secretary

    ___p://www.detroitjamaat.org/detroitjamaatorg/website_contest_milad_98/entry6/www/organizations/bwomen.asp

  29. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    Female genital mutilation practised in Iran, study reveals

    First authoritative research shows FGM is carried out in four major provinces

    […] FGM is more prevalent in the southern province of Hormozgan and its nearby islands (Qeshm and Hormuz) than in any other parts of the country. It is also being practised to a lesser degree in Kurdistan, Kermanshah and West Azerbaijan provinces, which are situated in western Iran close to the Iraq border.

    Ahmady’s research shows that FGM is mainly an issue concerning the Shafi’i sect of Sunni Muslim Iranians, a minority in the Shia-dominated country. […]

    “FGM is practised in Iran in some cases to tame girls’ sex drive before marriage; it is made to preserve their chastity,” said Ahmady.

    [ Den Geschlechtstrieb zähmen als Ziel, die Keuschheit wahren? Unsinn. Immer dieses Ausweichen vor dem i-Wort. Die Religion (al-islam) verlangt Chitan al-inath (Chatna, FGM). Die wollen in den Himmel kommen. ]

    […] Influenced by events in the neighbouring Kurdistan region of Iraq, which prohibited FGM in 2007, female circumcision is in decline in Iran’s Kurdistan but still goes on. Hormozgan is less affected by that change. […]

    A woman wearing a niqab in Iran’s Hormozgan province, which has the highest incidence of FGM in the country. Niqabs are only worn in southern provinces. Photograph: Kamran Jebreili/Getty Images/arabianEye

    Female genital mutilation practised in Iran, study reveals | By: Saeed Kamali Dehghan | The Guardian 04.06.2015

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/04/female-genital-mutilation-iran-fgm

    ::
    ::

    „Frauenbeschneidung ist aus religiöser Sicht nicht verboten!“

    Ayatollah Ali Sistani: „Aus religiöser Sicht ist Frauenbeschneidung erlaubt!“

    . . . . .

    Ayatollah Khamenei issued a ruling for Shiite Muslims in Iran, in 2011, declaring FGM as permissible but not obligatory. He also ruled that if the husband of a Muslim woman wants her to get circumcised then, „(the) implementation of husband’s order is obligatory for the wife if it does not have disadvantages or it is not harmful for the wife, she has to listen to her husband’s request.“

    Ayatollah Ali al-Husayni Ali al-Sistani of Iraq, in 2010, issued a fatwa that female genital mutilation is not haram.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_views_on_female_genital_mutilation

    ::

    Irfan Al-Alawi is executive director of the London-based Islamic Heritage Research Foundation. Stephen Schwartz, a fellow at the Middle East Forum, is executive director of the Center for Islamic Pluralism in Washington, DC.

    Die zwei eben Genannten, darunter Konvertit (nicht weg vom Islam, das ist haram, sondern in die aus islamischer Sicht jedem Menschen durch dessen فطرة Fitra schließlich angeborene Richtung) Stephen Suleyman Schwartz, geben der Taqiyya Raum, dem schariagehorsamer Nebelwurf, und lassen Hassan Yousefi Eshkevari die feierliche Lüge verkünden:

    “For the past 1,400 years there was no reflection of this topic in books by Islamic scholars or clerics.”

    http://www.weeklystandard.com/confronting-fgm-in-iran-and-iraqi-kurdistan/article/973118

    Stephen Suleyman Schwartz

    Stephen Suleyman Schwartz (born September 9, 1948) is an American Sufi[1] journalist, columnist, and author. He has been published in a variety of media, including The Wall Street Journal. He is the founder and executive director of the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Islamic Pluralism. In 2011–2012 he was a member of Folks Magazine’s Editorial Board.

    .

    .

    Dr. Irfan Al Alawi is an expert in Middle East affairs and Tasawwuf (Islamic spirituality), and studied at Al-Azhar University, Cairo as well as under the famous Imam Sayyid Habib ahmad Mashhur al Haddad Al Alawi. He is International Director at the Centre for Islamic Pluralism and a Visiting Fellow at The Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars (Washington). […]

    “We cannot have culture as a reason that we’re going to continue cutting people,” said Camara. “FGC is not just about culture. At the root, it is about human rights.” [ Welche MR? Kairo 1990? ]

    [ FGC is not just about culture. At the root, it is about Islam. ]

    Written by Francesca Cameron, edited by Schuyler Null. | Wilson Center

    http://www.yonkerstribune.com/2015/06/eradicating-female-genital-mutilation-in-iraqi-kurdistan-by-irfan-al-alawi-and-stephen-schwartz

    ::

    FGM is not Islamic. by Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad, Ph.D., Minaret of Freedom Institute

    https://promosaik.blogspot.de/2016/12/fgm-is-not-islamic.html

    ::

    Dawud Walid is currently the Executive Director of the Michigan chapter of the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR-MI), which is a chapter of America’s largest advocacy and civil liberties organization for American Muslims and is a member of the Michigan Muslim Community Council (MMCC) Imams Committee.

    http://www.cairmichigan.org/profile?id=5072dfbaaa8eec6846000002

    Dawud Walid: „The Council on American-Islamic Relations reaffirmed its long held position on Feb. 6, the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, that FGM is against Islamic beliefs. [Jaja, diese schreckliche afrikanische FGM. Und die sunat perempuan, (ختان الإناث), Chitan al-inath?] Furthermore, as a member of the Michigan Muslim Community Council Imams Committee […]“

    Letter: Stand against female genital mutilation | By: Dawud Walid | The Detroit News 19.04.2017

    http://www.detroitnews.com/story/opinion/2017/04/19/dawud-walid-genital-mutilation/100680680/

    ::

    […] Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) […] CAIR was founded in 1994 […] CAIR itself is part of the US. Muslim Brotherhood.

    “A Last, Desperate Plea To Excuse Hamas Support” | By gmbwatch (The Global Muslim Brotherhood Daily Watch) 13.02.2017

    https://www.globalmbwatch.com/2017/02/13/recommended-reading-a-last-desperate-plea-to-excuse-hamas-support/

    [ Am 15. November 2014 wurde CAIR in eine Liste von terroristischen bzw. dem Terrorismus zuzurechnenden Organisationen hinzugefügt, die vom Kabinett der Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate erstellt wurde. ]

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_on_American-Islamic_Relations

  30. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    Tahara ( طهارة ṭahāra ) – Nicht nur sauber, sondern rein

    _ _

    Rituelle Reinheit

    http://www.eslam.de/begriffe/r/rituelle_reinheit.htm

    Tahara – Der Begriff wird auch im Zusammenhang mit der Beschneidung des Mannes und […] zur Bezeichnung von Praktiken der Beschneidung weiblicher Genitalien [ Islamic FGM ] verwendet.

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tah%C4%81ra

    _ _

    Chitan (arab.: ختان ) oder Chatna (arab.: ختنة ) bezeichnet die männliche oder weibliche Beschneidung [ Genitalverstümmelung ]

    Khitan (Arabic: ختان ) or Khatna (Arabic: ختنة ) is the term for male and female circumcision

    Like male circumcision, female circumcision is considered as a religious requirement of the Dawoodi Bohras. Both male and female circumcision (Arabic khatna and khafd respectively) find mention in books of jurisprudence written in the 10th century, including in Daim al-Islam [ Daʿāʾimu l-islām ], the principal book of Ismaili Fatimid jurisprudence written by [ al-Numan (an-Nuʿmān) under the reign of the fourth Fatimid Caliph and 14th Ismaili imam ] Al-Mu’izz li-Din Allah. The book traces the custom for both genders to the sayings of Prophet Muhammad and his successor (according to the Shia) Ali ibn Abi Talib.

    Claims that female circumcision is designed to curb [ bändigen, dämpfen, drosseln ] the woman’s sexuality and is patriarchal in nature have no foundation in the religious books of the Dawoodi Bohras.

    [ Drosseln stimmt zu FGM Typ Ib – anatomisch. Nicht islamisch. Die FGM nach Koran und Sunna, die Chatna ist reine Religion. Doch wird das curb bemerkenswert oft laut. Ein Trick. Curb & Geschnatter „Schlimm patriarchal“ ist red herring, Taqiyya. ]

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khitan_(circumcision)

    Irreführung: Roter Hering

    Im Red Herring wird das unsachliche Argument wissentlich vorgetragen, um den Gesprächspartner oder Leser in die Irre zu führen. [ Taqiyya, Lügen für Islamerhalt und -expansion ]

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Herring_(Redewendung)

    _ _

    معد المعز لدين الله‎‎
    ابو تميم معد المعزّ لدين الل
    Abū Tamīm al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh
    Abū Tamīm Maʿadd al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh
    Abu Tamim al-Muizz (The Commander of the Faithful)

    Abu Tamim al-Muizz (* ca. 930 in Mahdiya; † 975 in Kairo) war der vierte Kalif der Fatimiden und der 14. Imam der Ismailiten. In der Zeit seiner Herrschaft (953–975) verlagerte sich das Machtzentrum der Fatimiden von Ifriqiya nach Ägypten, wobei Wissenschaft und Künste in Ägypten eine Blütezeit erlebten. Er selbst widmete sich der Philosophie, Literatur, Astrologie und beherrschte mehrere Sprachen.

    Im Jahr 953 übernahm er nach dem Tod seines Vaters Ismail al-Mansur (reg. 946–953) das Kalifat.

    In die Zeit von al-Muizz fällt auch die Gründung der Al-Azhar-Universität (969), die zu einem religiösen Zentrum für die Ausbildung ismailitischer Missionare (dāʿī) wurde. Obwohl Kairo zum Ausgangspunkt der ismailitischen Mission wurde, unternahmen die Fatimiden nur geringe Anstrengungen, ihre Doktrin innerhalb der ägyptischen Bevölkerung zu verbreiten. Von größerer Bedeutung war die erstmalige Missionierung außerhalb des fatimidischen Herrschaftsbereichs, die besonders auf die Qarmaten abzielte. Mit Hilfe ihrer Unterstützung sollten weitere abbasidischer Provinzen im Osten erobert werden.

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Tamim_al-Muizz

    _ _
    _ _

    Daʿāʾim al-islām wa-ḏikr al-ḥalāl wa-l-qaḍāyā wa-l-aḥkām
    Die Säulen des Islam, die Erwähnung des Erlaubten und der Rechtsentscheidungen und Urteile
    Daimu l-Islam
    Daim al-Islam

    The pillars of Islam
    of
    al-Qadi al-Nu’man

    http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/25987944

    Erster Band

    https://archive.org/stream/42873287/12746244102#page/n0/mode/2up

    The Pillars of Islam
    Ibadat: Acts of Devotion and Religious Observances

    The Pillars of Islam
    Muamalat: Laws Pertaining to Human Intercourse

    (s. u.)

    _ _

    Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nuʿmān bin Muḥammad at-Tamīmī
    an-Nuʿmān
    al-Numan

    He has written 44 books on Fiqh, history, religious beliefs and Ta’wil.

    Al-Nu’man’s most prominent work, the Daim al-Islam (Arabic:دعائم الاسلام) (‚The Pillars of Islam‘), which took nearly thirty years to complete, is an exposition of the Fatimid jurisprudence. The work that was finally completed during the reign of the fourth caliph, al-Mu’izz li-din Allah (r. 953-975 CE/ 341-365 AH), was accepted in its time as the official code of the Fatimid state, and serves to this day as the primary source of law (sharia) for some Mustaali Isma’ili communities, especially the Tayyibis. Iran has incorporated Daim-ul-Islam into their constitution.

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/An-Nu%CA%BFm%C4%81n

    _ _

    The Pillars of Islam: Muamalat: Laws Pertaining to Human Intercourse (Vol. II) (Oxford India Paperbacks) Revised ed. Edition
    by Ismail K.H. Poonawala (Translator), Asaf A. A. Fyzee (Translator)

    https://www.amazon.com/Pillars-Islam-Pertaining-Intercourse-Paperbacks/dp/0195689070

    The Pillars of Islam: Volume I: Ibadat: Acts of Devotion and Religious Observances 1st Edition
    by Ismail Kurban Husein Poonawala (Editor)

    https://www.amazon.com/Pillars-Islam-Devotion-Religious-Observances/dp/0195684354/ref=pd_sim_14_1/145-5600395-2987458?_encoding=UTF8&pd_rd_i=0195684354&pd_rd_r=3X817HAPVH3P15Z7RX7W&pd_rd_w=9xt4x&pd_rd_wg=qifJN&psc=1&refRID=3X817HAPVH3P15Z7RX7W

    _ _

    _ _

    Another Muslim Doctor Arrested For Conspiring In Female Genital Mutilation

    […] The criminal complaint from the DOJ alleges that Nagarwala’s acts were performed in the Attar’s Burhani Medical Clinic (BMC) in Livonia, where Mrs. Attar, described as an “office manager,” held the hands of the girls screaming in pain.

    The complaint alleges:

    This investigation has identified other children who may have been cut by Nagarwala at Attar’s clinic, BMC, between 2005 and 2017, including children in Michigan. On April 10, 2017, child forensic interviews employed by the FBI and HSI interviewed several minor girls in Michigan. In these interviews, multiple minor girls informed forensic interviewers that procedures had been performed on their genitals by Nagarwala. One minor girl said that Farida was present during the procedure performed by Nagarwala.

    As Townhall reported, „According to wiretapped conversations between Nagarwala and Mrs. Attar, Nagarwala advised parents to deny knowing about FGM should they be asked by federal law enforcement authorities.

    http://www.dailywire.com/news/15623/another-muslim-doctor-arrested-conspiring-female-hank-berrien

    _ _

  31. Edward von Roy Says:

    removed membrane from the girls‘ genital area using a „scraper“ as part of a religious practice

    Von FGM Typ IV ist die Rede – will die Verteidigung diese Strategie nutzen – oder hat zwischen 2005 und 2017 im Großraum Detroit wirklich nur Typ-IV-FGM stattgefunden?

    Englisch scraper meint Schaber, Flachschaber, Ziehklinge, Hobel, Schabermesser, Kratze, Reibe, Löffelschaber oder Raspel.

    Jede Form von FGM muss verboten bleiben – FGM ist FGM Typ I, II, III oder IV. Der vierte Typ der keineswegs in strafbewehrt und statthaft aufzuspaltenden WHO-Klassifikation beinhaltet Ziehen, Quetschen, Brennen, Ätzen, Stechen, Raspeln, Kratzen, Schaben, Reiben. Das intakte Genital des Kindes, Kind ist Mensch unter 18 (achtzehn) Jahren, steht nicht zur Disposition.

    Wir übersehen nicht, dass jedes zweite Kind auf der Welt kein Mädchen ist.
    .
    .

    (…) During a court hearing April 17, Nagarwala’s defense attorney, Shannon Smith, told a judge the procedure did not involve cutting and was religious in nature, CNN affiliate WXYZ reported.
    Smith argued the procedure is practiced by the Dawoodi Bohra, an Islamic sect based in India, and that the clinic was used to keep procedures sterile, WXYZ reported.

    The Detroit Free Press reported from the hearing that Smith said her client removed membrane from the girls‘ genital area using a „scraper“ as part of a religious practice.

    Michigan doctors charged in first federal genital mutilation case in US | By Mayra Cuevas, CNN (CNN’s Laura Jarrett and Mary Kay Mallonee contributed to this report.) | CNN 23.04.2017

    http://edition.cnn.com/2017/04/22/health/detroit-genital-mutilation-charges/

    .

    The doctor’s attorney argued that her client never performed female genital mutilations, but rather removed a mucous membrane from the Minnesota girls‘ genitals using a ’scraper.‘ […]

    The judge also asked why the doctor handed the girls pads, presumably to absorb bleeding, as alleged by the prosecution, to which Smith replied that the feminine hygiene products were given to soak up iodine that was used during the procedure, not blood.

    Detroit doctor and his wife are arrested for ‚conspiring‘ with physician who ‚performed genital mutilation on two 7-year-old girls‘ | By Cheyenne Roundtree and Snejana Farberov For Dailymail.com and Associated Press | Daily Mail 21.04.2017 22:06 BST | Updated 21.04.2017 23:06 BST

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4433944/Two-arrested-conspiring-genital-mutilation.html

    .

    scraper

    http://www.dict.cc/englisch-deutsch/scraper.html

    .

    FGM Type IV — All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.

    http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/overview/en/

  32. Cees van der Duin Says:

    In the Matter of B and G (Children) (No 3) [2015] EWFC 27

    Two children, B aged 3 and G aged 2 at the time […] The parents were of African origin, although the mother had been born and brought up in Scandinavia. They met in the UK and married in an Islamic ceremony. […]

    The President of the Family Division had previously handed down two judgments Re B and G (Children) [2014] EWFC 43 and Re B and G (No 2) [2015] EWFC 3. The first judgment, addressing whether G had been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM), concluded that the local authority had been unable to establish on the evidence that she had been nor that she was at risk of being subjected to any form of FGM. […]

    […] Sir James Munby, President of the Family Division :

    1. These are care proceedings in relation to two children, B, a boy, born in July 2010 and G, a girl, born in July 2011 (these are not their real initials). In terms of their ethnic origin, both the father, F, and the mother, M, come from an African country which I shall refer to as country A, though the mother was born and brought up in a Scandinavian country which I shall refer to as country S (again, these are not the real initials). The family are Muslims. […]

    3. At the end of the hearing on 7 November 2014 I reserved judgment. On 11 November 2014 I handed down a very short judgment announcing my decision and my conclusions on various issues: Re B and G (Children) [2014] EWFC 43. I said that I would give detailed reasons in due course. On 14 January 2015 I handed down a further judgment dealing with the most important issue in the proceedings, whether G had been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) and, if she had, what the implications of that were in relation to planning for her and her brother’s future: Re B and G (No 2) [2015] EWFC 3. My conclusion was that the local authority was unable on the evidence to establish that G either had been or was at risk of being subjected to any form of FGM. […]

    8. As set out in my first judgment (Re B and G (Children) [2014] EWFC 43, para 2), I concluded that:

    „(i) The local authority is unable on the evidence to establish that G (as I shall refer to her) either has been or is at risk of being subjected to any form of female genital mutilation. […]

    http://www.familylawweek.co.uk/site.aspx?i=ed144190

    :::

    Court judgement raises questions about FGM and male circumcision in the UK

    National Secular Society 15.01.2015

    […] In a ruling on a child thought by Leeds city council to have been a victim of FGM, the judge, Sir James Munby, described the practice as „evil“ and said that „the court must not hesitate to use every weapon in its protective arsenal if faced with a case of actual or anticipated FGM.“

    Sir James added: „Given what we now know is the distressingly great prevalence of FGM in this country even today, some thirty years after FGM was first criminalised, it is sobering to reflect that this is not merely the first care case where FGM has featured but also, I suspect, if not the first one of only a handful of FGM cases that have yet found their way to the family courts.

    „The courts alone, whether the family courts or the criminal courts, cannot eradicate this great evil but they have an important role to play and a very much greater role than they have hitherto been able to play.“

    The judge said that FGM was „an abuse of human rights“ that had „no basis in any religion.“ [ Das stimmt nicht. ]

    In his ruling, Sir James sought to distinguish between the severity of different types of female genital mutilation as compared with male circumcision. The judge described the „curiosity“ of the law allowing male circumcision whilst it outlaws FGM. Sir James said that law is „still prepared to tolerate non-therapeutic male circumcision performed for religious or even for purely cultural or conventional reasons, while no longer being willing to tolerate FGM in any of its forms.“

    The case Sir James was considering concerned the adoption of two children of Muslim parents, named only as G and B. […]

    Despite finding that some Type IV FGM was comparable with male circumcision, the judge ruled that „‚reasonable‘ parenting is treated as permitting male circumcision“, in part because „male circumcision is often performed for religious reasons“ whilst „FGM has no basis in any religion.“ [ Dem ist nicht so. ] The judge noted that male circumcision was seen by some as „providing hygienic or prophylactic benefits“ though accepted that „opinions are divided.“

    The judge concluded that although „both involve significant harm, there is a very clear distinction in family law between FGM and male circumcision.“

    Prior to a change in the case pressed by the local authority, the children’s case would have depended upon G’s Type IV FGM, despite the fact that „on any objective view it might be thought that G would have had subjected to a process much less invasive, no more traumatic (if, indeed, as traumatic) and with no greater long-term consequences, whether physical, emotional or psychological, than the process to which B has been or will be subjected.“

    Much discussion in court centred over whether G had a small scar on her genitals or not, which led Sir James to discuss the relative severity of this variety of Type IV female genital mutilation and male circumcision.

    Making suggestions for the future, Sir James drew attention to a „dearth of medical experts“ in paediatric FGM and noted the importance of „knowledge and understanding of the classification and categorisation of the various types of FGM.“

    [ Richter Munby empfiehlt uns lediglich immer mehr „Kenntnis und Verständnis“ zur weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung … und schließt die Akte. ]

    http://www.secularism.org.uk/news/2015/01/fgm-court-judgement-raises-questions-about-fgm-and-male-circumcision-in-the-uk

    :::

    National Secular Society 12.12.2014

    House of Lords debates FGM and Sharia Law in the UK

    On Thursday 11 December, there were debates in the House of Lords on female genital mutilation (FGM) and the „impact of Sharia Law on the United Kingdom.“ […]

    Baroness Tonge, an honorary associate of the NSS, spoke of how FGM „causes untold physical damage to a woman“ and equated the practice to a family member sexually abusing a young girl. Lady Tonge called for parents to be prosecuted if their child is the victim of FGM. […]

    http://www.secularism.org.uk/news/2014/12/house-of-lords-debates-fgm-and-sharia-law-in-the-uk

    (The full text of the debates can be read here.)

    Sharia Law

    Question for Short Debate

    Asked by Baroness Flather

    https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201415/ldhansrd/text/141211-gc0001.htm#14121139000326

  33. Cees van der Duin Says:

    ::

    “The act must be done. It needs to be done discreetly when it is a woman, but it needs to be done.”

    ( Syedna Muffadal Saifuddin’s speech at a mosque in Mumbai. )

    https://thehimalayantimes.com/world/a-speech-by-the-spiritual-leader-of-the-dawoodi-bohra-community-in-which-he-appears-to-be-urging-followers-in-india-to-continue-the-practice-of-female-genital-mutilation-fgm/

    Then in June 2016, the Syedna issued a statement to clarify his official stand on khatna. It stated that the resolution letters issued in various international jamaats were still valid for Bohras living in those nations. However, in the same statement, Syedna also endorsed khatna as a “religious obligation” necessary for “religious purity”. These ambiguous messages can be confusing to community members who may then be caught between abiding by the laws of their land and abiding by their leader’s wishes.

    ( Sahiyo )

    https://sahiyo.com/2017/04/14/detroit-arrest-it-is-time-for-bohras-to-get-serious-about-ending-female-genital-cutting/

    Das geht doch nicht. Man war ein bisschen empört. Alle Welt (oder so) wartete auf eine Erklärung zum alle Jungen und Mädchen bertreffenden religiösen Ritual namens

    Chitan / ختان‎‎ oder Chatna /ختنة‎‎
    ChafD / خفض / ḫafḍ oder ChifaD / خفاض / ḫifāḍ
    [ Islamische weibliche Genitalverstümmelung / Islamic FGM ]

    Die kam. Einerseits solle man sich an die Gesetze des Landes halten (welche Gesetze wie einzuhalten seien, blieb m. E. eher offen). Das spirituelle Oberhaupt der Dawudi Bohra stellte die religiöse Verankerung der Beschneidung aller Jungen und Mädchen fest, Chatna bzw. ChafD ist und bleibt Religionspflicht:

    “Male and female circumcision (called khatna and khafz respectively) are religious rites that have been practiced by Dawoodi Bohras throughout their history. Religious books, written over a thousand years ago, specify the requirements for both males and females as acts of religious purity. This religious obligation finds an echo in many other Muslim communities, particularly those following the Sunni Shafi’i school of thought.”

    ( Syedna Muffadal Saifuddin )
    ( Ein Bericht der Anti-FGM-Gruppe Sahiyo )

    https://sahiyo.com/2016/06/07/our-campaign-will-continue-sahiyos-statement-in-response-to-syednas-official-stand-on-khatna/

    ::

    [ Der Syedna eben nicht gegen FGM, dna India blickt durch ]

    Syedna Mufaddal for female circumcision

    dna Correspondent | dna (Indien) 09.06.2016

    Bohra community head’s statement says only if government bans it, will it be stopped

    Days after his challenger made a statement that female circumcision be carried out by Dawoodi Bohra women only if they wanted to after attaining adulthood, a press statement from the public relations office of the 53rd Dai al-Mutlaq, Dr Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, states that khafz (Islamic female circumcision) be carried out unless it is banned by the government.

    „Male and female circumcision (called khatna and khafz respectively) are religious rites that have been practised by Dawoodi Bohras throughout history. Religious books, written over a thousand years ago, specify the requirements for both males and females as acts of religious purity. This religious obligation finds an echo in many other Muslim communities, particularly those following the Sunni Shafi’i school of thought,“ stated the statement.

    It went on to add: „In many parts of the world Anjumans, the administrative bodies of the Dawoodi Bohra Jamaats, have directed their congregations not to undertake khafz, insofar as it is included in the procedures that have been made illegal under the laws of their countries. These resolutions reflect the repeated directions of Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin TUS to respect the law of the land and live as worthy and contributory citizens within prevailing laws….It is clarified that contrary to the media reports following the sermon of Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin TUS of 25th April 2016, these resolutions of the Anjumans have not been nullified and continue to be valid.

    Further resolutions continue to be adopted in other jurisdictions even after the said sermon.“ [ Ja. Kontra oder pro Chatna … ]

    In a reaction, Sahiyo, one of the groups against female genital mutilation (FGM), said: „We thank Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin for officially and publicly speaking on the issue of female genital cutting, since there has been so much silence and confusion on this issue for so long. We are pleased to know that the resolutions issued in several cities around the world, asking Bohra residents to stop practising khafz, still stand as valid. While we are pleased that the resolutions will continue to be issued in countries where female genital cutting is illegal, we are saddened to see that the Syedna’s statement clearly promotes the practice of khafz in countries where such laws are yet to be passed.“

    [ Chitan / ختان‎‎ oder Chatna /ختنة‎‎ ]
    [ ChafD / خفض / ḫafḍ oder ChifaD / خفاض / ḫifāḍ ]
    [ Zwischen Junge und Mädchen wird nicht differenziert, hier: ]
    [ Islamische weibliche Genitalverstümmelung / Islamic FGM ]

    The statement goes on to add: „We maintain that khafz is a form of gender violence, an unnecessary ritual that has left many Bohra girls and women with life-long psychological and physical scars. The World Health Organisation defines female genital cutting as ‚all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons‘, and khafz clearly falls within that definition. Several conventions of the United Nations, including CEDAW, UNFPA, Unicef and UNDP, have declared FGC to be a violation of human and child rights. Countries like India, even though they may not have a specific law against FGC, are signatories to these conventions. We will continue our campaign to bring an end to this practice of female genital cutting within the community. We urge our leader to engage with Bohra women who have been negatively impacted by this practice and pay heed to our voices.“

    http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report-syedna-mufaddal-for-female-circumcision-2221411

    Launched on July 30, 2005, in Mumbai, dna is an English broadsheet daily owned by Diligent Media Corporation, an Essel Group company.

    http://www.dnaindia.com/about

    ::

    ::

    Über den Islam nur Gutes. Fakten sind unbequem. Das spirituelle Oberhaupt der Dawudi Bohra betont: Religiöse Riten, religiöse Schriften, religiöse Verpflichtung (religious rites – religious books – religious obligation).

    „Male and female circumcision (called khatna and khafz respectively) are religious rites that have been practised by Dawoodi Bohras throughout history. Religious books, written over a thousand years ago, specify the requirements for both males and females as acts of religious purity. This religious obligation finds an echo in many other Muslim communities, particularly those following the Sunni Shafi’i school of thought.“

    Man kann erkennen und sollte sagen:

    Multiple Islamic scholars and experts say the practice is religious, not based in cultural principles. Those who don’t have their daughters circumcised are subjected to pressure, and those who do believe they are fulfilling a religious obligation.

    Jeff Karoub schweigt zu der – durch den Syedna erwähnten – schafiitischen Pflicht zur Chatna im Sinne von Mädchenbeschneidung:

    „Multiple Islamic scholars and experts say the practice is cultural, not based in religious principles. Those who don’t have their daughters circumcised are subjected to pressure, and those who do believe they are protecting the girls.“

    Doctor’s arrest brings attention to US female circumcisions | By: Jeff Karoub | Associated Press 23.04.2017

    http://www.arkansasonline.com/news/2017/apr/23/doctors-arrest-brings-attention-us-female-circumci/?print

    http://www.sfgate.com/news/crime/article/Doctor-s-arrest-brings-attention-to-US-female-11092637.php

    ::

    Detroit 2017. Dr. Fakhruddin Attar besitzt die Privatklinik BMC (Burhani Medical Clinic) im Vorort Livonia, wo Dr. Jumana Nagarwala, so der Verdacht, illegale rituelle Genitalverstümmelungen (FGM) an Mädchen zwischen sechs und acht Jahren vornahm. Dritte verhaftete Person: Attars Ehefrau Farida.

  34. Machandelboom Says:

    Andschuman-e-Nadschmi-Moschee (Detroit) 11.05.2016

    „You are strictly directed not to engage in khafd.“

    _ _ _

    Sahiyo‏ @sahiyo2016

    Detroit jamaat says no to khatna, but Syedna says yes to khatna in Mumbai. If ur Bohra & confused, go with Detroit!

    _ _ _

    _ _ _
    _ _ _

    „You are strictly directed not to engage in khafd.“

    ___p://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/2017/04/22/female-genital-mutilation-victims-michigan/100690792/

  35. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    Indonesia

    la más alta instancia religiosa, siguen siendo favorables a la ablación

    the largest, Nahdlatul Ulama, and the country’s top Islamic authority the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) are still in favour
    .
    .

    Las Naciones Unidas la condenan y el gobierno indonesio trató una vez de prohibirla, pero la fuerte resistencia de las autoridades religiosas de este archipiélago del sureste asiático ha hecho imposible esta prohibición. […]

    Una opinión que comparte Jorirah Ali, miembro de la comisión nacional para prevenir y erradicar la violencia contra las mujeres. „Creo que en mi religión no hay ningún versículo que autorice la mutilación femenina, no está en el Corán“, declara esta mujer a la AFP. [ Islam funktioniert als Koran und Sunna … Hadith lesen. ]

    Pero la primera organización musulmana del país, Nahdlatul Ulama, y el Consejo de Ulemas, la más alta instancia religiosa, siguen siendo favorables a la ablación. [ NU & MUI ]

    Pese a las oposiciones, el fin de la mutilación genital femenina tiene pocas posibilidades de darse en Indonesia, dice a la AFP Jurnalis Uddin, experta en mutilaciones genitales femeninas. „Querer librarse totalmente de esta práctica es como nadar contra corriente“, destaca.

    La mutilación genital femenina, una pesadilla para millones de niñas en Indonesia | (AFP) | Redacción 180 (Montevideo, Uruguay) 27.03.2017

    http://www.180.com.uy/articulo/67476_la-mutilacion-genital-femenina-una-pesadilla-para-millones-de-ninas-en-indonesia

    ::

    Vgl. oben spanisch;
    englisch ebenfalls am 27.03.2017

    .

    […] The country’s second-biggest Muslim organisation, Muhammadiyah, discourages its followers from partaking in circumcision but the largest, Nahdlatul Ulama, and the country’s top Islamic authority the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) are still in favour. […]

    Jurnalis Uddin, an expert on female circumcision from Jakarta-based Yarsi University, and a member of the government’s advisory council, said the focus should be on encouraging the less harmful methods.

    „To get rid of the practice completely is like swimming against the current,“ he told AFP.

    Indonesian girl howls through circumcision as debate heats up | by: AFP | Daily Mail / Mail online 27.03.2017

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-4351970/Indonesian-girl-howls-circumcision-debate-heats-up.html

    Prof. Dr. Jurnalis Uddin, dosen Anatomi.

    ___ps://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yayasan_YARSI

    Jurnalis Uddin

    https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurnalis_Uddin

    ::

    Prof Jurnalis Uddin, Ketua Yayasan YARSI membahas panduan Kementrian Kesehatan Indonesia tentang khitan perempuan serta membandingkannya dengan kategori khitan perempuan WHO.

    ___ps://www.facebook.com/SBS.Radio.Indonesian/posts/296808373778733

    ::

    .

    Profil Prof. Dr. Jurnalis Uddin „Sunat Perempuan: Antara Agama dan Ilmu Kedokteran“

    Jurnal Perempuan

    Prof. Dr. Jurnalis Uddin adalah seorang spesialisasi anatomi, Guru Besar di Fakultas Kedokteran YARSI, sekaligus Ketua Yayasan YARSI. Ia juga menjabat Ketua Pusat Studi Wanita YARSI yang sekarang berubah nama menjadi Lembaga Studi Kependudukan dan Gender.

    Prof. Jurnalis Uddin sempat memenuhi ruang media di awal tahun 2013 atas hasil penelitiannya tentang sunat perempuan. Melalui penelitian tersebut Jurnalis Uddin menyatakan dukungannya terhadap Amnesty International yang melarang keras praktik sunat perempuan. Jurnalis Uddin tidak setuju dengan Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan tahun 2010 mengenai tata laksana khitan perempuan, yang justru memperbesar resiko kerugian pada perempuan yang dikhitan. Ia bahkan mendesak Kementerian Kesehatan segera mencabut peraturan Menteri Kesehatan tentang khitan perempuan. MUI kemudian merespons keras pendapatnya tersebut, dan justru memberi anjuran kepada masyarakat untuk melakukan khitan perempuan.

    Baca selengkapnya di JP Edisi 77 „Agama dan Seksualitas“ ___p://www.jurnalperempuan.org/toko-jp.html

    .
    .
    [ Ab hier mein Kommentar von vor einem Jahr ]
    .
    .

    Schafiitisch Junge oder Mädchen, unbeschnitten ist haram:

    „According to religion, an uncircumcised girl is considered dirty.”

    Alles wird gut (alles ist halal), das Volk hat verstanden. Wenn da nicht diese Vereinten Nationen wären und der jährliche sechste Februar. Man wisse um die sunat perempuan und verliere nicht sein Gesicht. Man kultiviere das tosende Blabla:

    „Former First Lady Sinta Nuriyah Wahid advocates for the elimination of FGM during a UNFPA conference in Jakarta.“

    Die einstige First Lady oder Ibu Negara, Landesmutter, war Ehefrau des 2009 verstorbenen indonesischen Politikers und Staatspräsidenten von 1999 bis 2001 Abdurrahman Wahid genannt Gus Dur. Dessen Großvater hatte die sunnitisch-schafiitische Nahdlatul Ulama (NU, nahḍatu l-ʿulamāʾ „Wiedererwachen der Gelehrten“) gegründet, die oft als antifundamentalistisch missverstanden wird und für allmähliche (und selbstredend globale) totalitäre Islamisierung steht. Zwischen 1984 und 1999 leitete Abdurrahman Wahid das Exekutivkomitee der NU. Mit einer Mitgliedschaft von über 30 Millionen Menschen ist die NU die größte schariatreue (islamische) NGO der Erde.

    “There really is no religious postulate for female circumcision, neither from the Al Quran nor from the Prophet’s sayings”

    Islamschönlügnerin Wahid am 17.09.2016 zu den Teilnehmern eines Seminars der UNFPA über die FGM in Jakarta, Tagungstitel: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Discussions from Social-Cultural and Health Perspectives.
    ::
    ::

    UNFPA Indonesia

    Changing the Dialogue: Speaking Out Against Female Genital Mutilation in Indonesia

    03.02.2016

    JAKARTA, Indonesia – “The day before I was discharged by the midwife, my daughter was circumcised. She is now three weeks old. When she becomes an adult, she will pray five times a day and read the Al Quran,“ says Rosa, a young woman living in Jakarta, before expressing a common misconception in the country. „According to religion, an uncircumcised girl is considered dirty.”

    In many regions of Indonesia, the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is centuries old and deeply seeded, and many, like Rosa, mistakenly believe the procedure is a dictate of their religion.

    [Wieso mistakenly, fälschlich? Die FGM ist schafiitisch religiöse Pflicht und für die anderen Rechtsschulen mindestens ehrenwert.]

    The sixth of February marks the International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM, and this February, Indonesia’s former First Lady Sinta Nuriyah Wahid’s, a devout Muslim, is leading a growing chorus in the country speaking out to counter this misconception and end the practice of FGM, which is recognized internationally as a violation of human rights.

    Die sunat perempuan ist wadschib. Lügen ohne rot zu werden:

    “There really is no religious postulate for female circumcision, neither from the Al Quran nor from the Prophet’s sayings,” said Madame Wahid, as she explained to the attendees of a UNFPA seminar on FGM in Jakarta why none of her four daughters – or six granddaughters – have been subjected to the procedure. “Culture is the result of careful thoughts that start with the virtue of human dignity. A tradition that does not contribute to [this virtue] is not a tradition that should become part of the national culture.” […]

    this Monday, 8 February, Indonesia’s Minister for Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection, Dr. Yohana Yambise will speak about the nation’s strengthened commitment to fighting the procedure at an International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM event at the United Nations in New York. […]

    http://indonesia.unfpa.org/news/2016/02/changing-the-dialogue-speaking-out-against-female-genital-mutilation-in-indonesia

    ::

    […] The Indonesian Commission for Child Protection (KPAI) has called on the government to do more against FGM, starting by taking a clear stance on the matter.

    KPAI commissioner Maria Ulfah Anshor previously pointed outthat FGM is a violation of Indonesia’s child protection law as well as a number of human rights principles and international conventions that Indonesia has ratified.

    Maria Ulfah said in September last year that the government should act quickly and decisively by providing “complete, honest and accurate information about opinions on and the effects of female circumcision, so that people can steer clear from this dangerous practice.”

    Indonesia’s Minister for Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection, Yohana Yambise was slated attend a high-level event at the United Nations in New York on Monday to mark International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, which falls on Feb. 6.

    The eradication of FGM by 2030 is part of the Sustainable Development Goals that world leaders, including the Indonesian government, agreed to last year.

    The fifth SDG, „Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls,“ specifically calls for the end of „all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere“ and the elimination of „all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilations.“

    Din Syamsuddin, chairman of the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) and former longtime chairman of Muhammadiyah, is a member of the Sustainable Development Solution Network (SDSN), a UN initiative, representing the Islamic world.

    [Din Syamsuddin = Prof. Dr. KH. Muhammad Sirajuddin Syamsuddin]

    Adding to the confusion surrounding the government’s stance on the practice in Indonesia, MUI in 2008 issued a controversial fatwa that condoned FGM.

    The semi-official MUI is Indonesia’s top Islamic advisory body.

    Parents here mostly cite religious reasons for allowing the procedure, even as a growing number of religious leaders in Indonesia and elsewhere contend that there is no basis in Islam for FGM.

    (Unicef: 200 Million FGM Cases Worldwide, Many in Indonesia. The Jakarta Globe, 05.02.2016)

    http://jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/news/unicef-200-million-fgm-cases-worldwide-many-indonesia/

    ::

    […] Jakarta. Din Syamsuddin, chairman of the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI), has been selected to become a member of the Sustainable Development Solution Network (SDSN), to represent the Islamic world in the United Nations initiative that has been supporting work on the 17 newly agreed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

    The former longtime chairman of Muhammadiyah, the nation’s second-largest socio-religious organization, was chosen in his capacity as a leader of the Religions for Peace organization, according to a press release by the Center for Dialogue and Cooperation Among Civilizations (CDCC), which he also chairs.

    The SDSN was launched by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in 2012 […]

    There are quite a few obstacles Indonesia will have to overcome to achieve any of the new SDGs, but Din could hit the ground running as his own MUI issued a controversial fatwa in 2008 condoning female genital mutilation (FGM), which is a direct challenge to development goal No. 5.

    Goal No. 5, „Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls,“ specifically calls for the end of „all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere“ and the elimination of „all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilations.“

    FGM, mainly carried out for religious reasons, remains widespread in Indonesia […]

    (MUI’s Din Syamsuddin Joins UN Quest for Sustainable Development. The Jakarta Globe)

    http://jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/news/muis-din-syamsuddin-joins-un-quest-sustainable-development/

    ::

    Din Syamsuddin
    Prof. Dr. KH. Muhammad Sirajuddin Syamsuddin

    Chairman of Muhammadiyah (2005–present)

    Chairman of the Center for Dialogue and Cooperation Among Civilizations / CDCC (2007–present)

    Member, Strategic Alliance Russia-based Islamic World (2006–present)

    Member, UK-Indonesia Islamic Advisory Group (2006–present)
    Chairman, World Peace Forum / WPF (2006–present)

    Honorary President, World Conference on Religions for Peace / WCRP, based in New York (2006–present)

    Vice Chairman of the MUI (2005–2010)

    Vice Chairman of the Central Advisory Board of ICMI (2005–2010)

    Vice Secretary General, World Islamic People’s Leadership [ WIPL ], based in Tripoli

    Member, World Council of World Islamic Call Society, based in Tripoli

    https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Din_Syamsuddin

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Din_Syamsuddin#Being_Chairman_of_Indonesian_Ulema_Council_Center

    Din Syamsuddin

    Muhammad Sirajuddin Syamsuddin (* 31.08.1958) ist ein indonesischer Politiker und Hochschullehrer, der zahlreiche Ämter bekleidet und sich am interreligiösen Dialog beteiligt. Er ist der Vorsitzende der Muhammadiyah, der größten modernistischen islamischen Organisation in Indonesien, und Generalsekretär des Indonesischen Ulema-Rates. Im Juli 2010 wurde er als Vorsitzender der Muhammadiyah für weitere fünf Jahre wiedergewählt. Er lehrt als Professor für Islamic Political Thought (Islamisches politisches Denken) an der Nationalen Islamischen Universität in Jakarta und ist Vorsitzender des Zentrums für Dialog und Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Zivilisationen (Center for Dialogue and Cooperation among Civilizations).

    Er studierte an der Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta und promovierte später an der Universität von Kalifornien, Los Angeles (UCLA) in den Vereinigten Staaten.

    2008 war er einer der Delegationsteilnehmer des 2. Seminars des Katholisch-Muslimischen Forums.

    Er gilt in verschiedenen Bereichen als eine der einflussreichsten Persönlichkeiten innerhalb der muslimischen Welt.

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Din_Syamsuddin

    ::

    Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI)

    Prof Din Syamsuddin Resmi Jadi Ketua Umum MUI Menggantikan Almarhum KH Sahal Mahfudz […] [Din replaced Sahal Mahfuz who died on 24.01.2014.]

    Ma’ruf Amin

    ::

    In November 2010, the Indonesian Ministry of Health passed a regulation [No. 1636/MENKES/PER/XI/2010 regarding “Female Circumcision”] legitimizing the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) and authorizing medical professionals to perform it.

    http://www.equalitynow.org/take_action/fgm_action431

    ::

    Patricia Tobon
    Patrícia Tobón Yagarí
    Maria Patrícia Tobón Yagarí

    http://www.un.org/spanish/News/story.asp?newsID=34401#.VrqystJ5N30

    ::

    [Wie denn nun, war Minister Heru P. Kasidi anwesend oder nicht, wenn ja, was hat er gegen die islamische FGM gesagt?]

    Indonesia’s Deputy Minister for Gender Equality Dr. Heru P. Kasidi and Patricia Tobón Yagarí, an Embera indigenous lawyer from Colombia.

    http://www.unfpa.org/es/node/13874

    Indonesia’s Deputy Minister for Gender Equality Dr. Heru P. Kasidi

    http://www.unfpa.org/fr/node/13893

    2014

    Women’s Roles and Participation in REDD+ Focus of Indonesian Gender and REDD+ Dialogue Event

    A dialogue event was held in Jakarta, Indonesia on 17 June 2014 on the topic of “Achieving Gender Equality in REDD+ Implementation”.

    Dr. Heru P. Kasidi, Deputy Minister for Gender Mainstreaming in Politics, Social and Law

    http://un-redd.org/Newsletter2014Issue3/IndonesianGenderREDD/tabid/133458/Default.aspx

    Dr. Heru KASIDI, Deputy, Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection, Indonesia

    http://www.oecd.org/globalrelations/OECD_SEA_Regional_Forum_AGENDA.pdf

    2007
    Dr Heru P. Kasidi, Assistant to Deputy Minister for EVAW, Ministry of Women Empowerment of Indonesia.

    http://unwomen-eseasia.org/News/Unifem_and_thai_gov_pressrelease.html

    ::

    [Die Ministerin heißt Yembise. Nicht Yambise. Aber wie denn nun, hat sich Ministerin Yembise im Februar 2016 in New York gegen die islamische FGM positioniert oder nicht?

    Mea culpa oder so, keine Fragen stellen, sondern sorgsam dosiert Ehre entbieten. Das Gesicht wahren.

    Wie geht es Ihren Kindern, ist die Kleine schon beschnitten?]

    […] Indonesia’s Minister for Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection, Dr. Yohana S. Yambise, and Patricia Tobón Yagarí, an Emberá indigenous lawyer from Colombia.

    (UNFPA zur diesjährigen Schönsprechveranstaltung International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation (FGM))

    http://www.unfpa.org/events/international-day-zero-tolerance-female-genital-mutilation

    Yohana Yembise
    Yohana Susana Yembise

    https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yohana_Yembise

    Yohana is first female Papuan minister

    (The Jakarta Post, 28.10.2014)

    http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/10/28/yohana-first-female-papuan-minister.html

    Yohana Susana Yembise: A first for Papua

    (The Jakarta Post, 26.04.2013)

    http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/04/26/yohana-susana-yembise-a-first-papua.html

    ::

    Nur Bewusstsein schaffen (raise awareness) soll reichen? Fordert die Ministerin, auch entgegen der schafiitischen Normativität (Scharia), die Mädchen wirklich gar nicht mehr zu beschneiden? FGM (sunat perempuan) ist Alltag, welche der existierenden Regelungen (regulations) also findet Menteri Yohana prima?

    Welche Anordnungen zur Islamic FGM sollen den Leuten 2016 bewusst (aware) gemacht werden? Wie viele weitere Jahre soll sich die indonesische Regierung irgendwie vorwärts (forward) bewegen? Was für einen Erfolg haben die durchgeführten staatlichen Programme (programs) denn gehabt?

    “In most cases, people aren’t even aware of the existence of regulations on FGM,” said Yohana Yembise. “Moving forward the Government will continue to conduct programmes to raise awareness among the medical and health workers to stop practicing any forms of FGM procedures.”

    Und wirklich jedwede (any) Form von FGM? Verstümmelung (mutilation) definiert durch MUI, Indonesiens Madschlis der Ulama?

    http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=53186#.Vrq7TdJ5N31

    http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2016/02/un-event-mobilizes-action-toward-ending-female-genital-mutilation/

    Menteri Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak

    Minister of Women Empowerment and Child Protection, Joan Yembise

    Minister für Women Empowerment und Kinderschutz, Johana Yembise

    ::

    […] The royal families of Java also employed a non-Arabic word for FGC such as kres or tetesan (‘pricking’). Among the orthodox Muslims, the term sunat perempuan or khitan perempuan (‘female circumcision’) is more commonly used, until today. […]

    The overwhelming majority of Muslims in Southeast Asia follow the Shafii school of law, which declares FGC as wajib, or obligatory.[…]

    Today, in Southeast Asian society, we are witnessing a growing trend towards institutionalising and medicalising FGC. In 2008, the Ministry of Health in Malaysia reported that 88 percent of their female staff had their daughters circumcised by doctors in the private practice. Another study in Indonesia revealed that 65 percent of FGC was performed in hospitals. In Singapore, a woman Muslim doctor admits to “circumcising five to six patients a day”, mostly babies and prepubescent children.

    In late 2006, the Ministry of Health in Indonesia banned doctors from performing the procedure based on the grounds that it was “potentially harmful”, but this ban was not enforced. Hospitals continue to offer sunat perempuan for baby girls, sometimes as part of “birth packages” which also included vaccinations and ear piercing. Yayasan Assalaam, an Islamic foundation that runs a mosque and several schools, also links the practice to celebrating the birthday of Prophet Muhammad, and even provides incentives like money and food to parents who bring their daughters to their annual sunat ceremony.

    In Malaysia, the Fatwa Committee of Malaysia’s National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs ruled in 2009 that female circumcision, was “obligatory for Muslims but if harmful must be avoided”. More recently, in Indonesia, the Indonesian Council of Ulema ruled in favour of female circumcision and added that although it cannot be considered mandatory, it is still “morally recommended”. The leader of this council however warned to avoid “excesses” in the removal or cutting of the clitoris — […]. A similar advice is given by the Islamic Religious Authority of Singapore on their website. […]

    (“A Tiny Cut”: Female Circumcision in South East Asia. Von: Sya Taha, 12.03.2013)

    http://theislamicmonthly.com/a-tiny-cut-female-circumcision-in-south-east-asia/

    ::

    the „tetesan“ – as it is called in the country […] The the Muslim intellectual Sumanto Al Qurtuby says the faction that supports tetesan is linked to the Salafi and Wahhabi [also ziemlich genau der hanbalitische Fiqh] community, which together with other fundamentalist groups are concentrated in Bandung and Aceh. They believe that circumcision is „morally“ encouraged by Sharia, or Islamic law, and reiterated in the hadith, in anecdotes related to the life of the Prophet Muhammad. […]

    The author of this article in his youth, when he was about eight years old, witnessed firsthand circumcision practiced on a young girl, forced by her parents (Muslims) to submit to the „Islamic ritual.“ Rather than doing it in a private and appropriately sterilized room – as I recall – the act of female circumcision was carried out in the open air, her feet on the ground, while the genital organ was removed with a razor blade. The little girl began to scream in pain, as a stream of blood oozed from the wound. At the end of the rite, I remember that the family offered a kind of celebration of the „thank you“ to neighbors, for taking part in the „Islamic ritual.“

    An opinion poll carried out by the government in 2003 confirmed that the practice of female genital mutilation is still widespread in rural areas. […]

    (Mathias Hariyadi: Java, radical Islam in favor of female genital mutilation. AsiaNews (katholisch), 12.07.2012)

    http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Java,-radical-Islam-in-favor-of-female-genital-mutilation-26563.html

    ::

    […] The sixth of February marks the International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM, and this February, Indonesia’s former First Lady Sinta Nuriyah Wahid’s, a devout Muslim, is leading a growing chorus in the country speaking out to counter this misconception and end the practice of FGM, which is recognized internationally as a violation of human rights.

    “There really is no religious postulate for female circumcision, neither from the Al Quran nor from the Prophet’s sayings,” said Madame Wahid, as she explained to the attendees of a UNFPA seminar on FGM in Jakarta why none of her four daughters – or six granddaughters – have been subjected to the procedure. “Culture is the result of careful thoughts that start with the virtue of human dignity. A tradition that does not contribute to [this virtue] is not a tradition that should become part of the national culture.” […]

    “Many countries have passed laws to criminalize FGM; however, legislation alone cannot solve the problem,” sayid Dr. Ahmed Ragaa Abdel-Hameed Ragab, a professor from the International Islamic Centre for Population Studies and Research at Cairo’s Al-Azhar University. “FGM can only be abolished by a grass-roots approach that involves community education and takes into consideration all aspects of a particular culture and tries to work within that system of beliefs to eradicate this practice.”

    In 2014, researchers at Jakarta’s YARSI University conducted a study along with UNFPA to better understand FGM practices throughout the country and help develop a new, more comprehensive plan to eliminate the procedure. Then in September 2015, UNFPA convened the seminar in Jakarta, attended by Madame Wahid and nearly 100 others, entitled Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Discussions from Social-Cultural and Health Perspectives. […]

    http://www.unfpa.org/fr/node/13893

    ::

    [Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Discussions from Social-Cultural and Health Perspectives. UNFPA-Seminar zur FGM. Jakarta am 17.09.2015, Jakarta on 17 Sept.]

    […] Prof. Jurnalis Uddin from YARSI University Indonesia presented findings from a study, which was supported by UNFPA Indonesia, aimed at determining whether the 2010 government regulation on female circumcision had been effective as a harm-reduction strategy. Women, men, midwives, traditional practitioners, religious leaders and Islamic jurists were approached to obtain a better understanding of their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding FGM/C.

    “FGM/C can only be abolished by a grassroots approach which involves community education and takes into consideration all aspects of a particular culture and tries to work within that system of beliefs to eradicate this practice,” explained Prof. Ahmed Ragaa Abd El-Hameed Ragab from the International Islamic Center for Population Studies and Research (IICPSR) at Al Azhar University in Egypt during his presentation, where he discussed FGM/C from the context of health, religion and culture.

    “Many countries have passed laws to to criminalize FGM/C , among them Egypt. However, legislation alone cannot solve the problem. The IICPSR at Al-Azhar University was founded in 1975 to disseminate the true stand of Islam regarding issues of reproductive health and explored the issue from an Islamic perspective and published several publications addressing it. In addition, IICPSR designed and implemented several programmes in Egypt and Somalia to eradicate this practice.” […]

    Former first lady and human rights activist H.E. Madame Sinta Nuriyah Wahid discussed some of the traditional motives and Islam and FGM/C procedures in Indonesia during her keynote speech, adding that she hoped the seminar would start a conversation.

    Sinta, who raised four daughters with the late fourth president of Indonesia, Abdurrahman ‘Gus Dur’ Wahid, described how her children grew up in a traditional pesantren (Islamic boarding school) environment. Their grandfather, Wahid Hasyim, was a religious affairs minister in the Sukarno era and their great-grandfather, Hasyim Asy’ari, founded Nahdlatul Ulama – currently the biggest religious organization in the country.

    Despite this, none of Sinta’s daughters or six granddaughters was subjected to the treatment, which many in Indonesia strongly believe is an integral part of the faith.

    “There really is no religious postulate for female circumcision, neither from the Koran nor from the prophet’s sayings,” explained Sinta during her keynote address, with various religious experts at the seminar concurring. “That is why I am confident that the nahdliyin [followers of NU] will not circumcise their daughters. I hope this seminar will contribute to ideas and recommendations of action to reduce the practice of female circumcision.” […]

    UNFPA

    http://indonesia.unfpa.org/news/2015/09/fgm-in-indonesia-discussions-from-a-social-cultural-and-health-perspective-

    .
    .
    .

    Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) verlangt sunat perempuan
    Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) verlangt sunat perempuan

    FGM? Aberdashatnichtsmitdemislamzutun …

  36. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    (2014) „Unterschriften wurden parallel an die indonesische Botschaft in Berlin und an das Gesundheitsministerium in Jakarta, Indonesien überreicht. […]

    [E]in Gesetz gegen weibliche Genitalverstümmelung halten [ die Regierungsvertreter ] nicht für notwendig. Die Überzeugung, dass jede Form von weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung eine Menschenrechtsverletzung darstellt wurde nicht geteilt.“

    .

    Indonesien. Im Staat mit der größten muslimischen Bevölkerung der Erde, nahezu ausschließich Sunniten der schafiitischen Rechtsschule, werden alle kinder – Jungen und Mädchen – religiös begründet beschnitten (genital verstümmelt).

    Februar 2014, die deutsche Frauenrechtsorganisation Terre des Femmes (TdF) schreibt eine dürre Petition gegen Indonesiens islamische weibliche Genitalverstümmelung und sammelt monatelang Unterschriften gegen FGM. Mehr oder weniger desinteressiert signiert man. Gegen Jahresende ist die Aktion vorbei und der Botschaft in Berlin wurden die Unterschriftenlisten überreicht.

    Der Botschafter hat besseres zu tun, doch Botschaftsmitarbeiterin Lefianna H. Ferdinandus erbarmt sich der Vertreter der Anti-FGM-Kampagne und nimmt die Listen entgegen. Und redet Klartext und schickte TdF nach Hause.

    Das geschah vor zweieinhalb Jahren. Geändet hat sich nichts in Südostasien. Fiqh nach Imam asch-Schafii. Seit tausend Jahren werden jeden Tag Mädchen beschnitten. FGM ist Religion.

    TdF über den Auftritt in Berlin vor der Botschaft:

    „Vom 6. Februar bis 10. Dezember 2014 lief die Unterschriftenaktion „Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung in Indonesien – Schutz statt Verharmlosung“ von TERRE DES FEMMES, Watch Indonesia! und Kalyanamitra. Zwischen dem weltweiten Tag ‚Null Toleranz gegenüber weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung‘ und dem internationalen Tag der Menschenrechte haben über 13.000 Menschen aus 73 Ländern unsere Petition unterzeichnet. […]

    Das Gesundheitsministerim nahm bei diesem Termin das Schreiben entgegen, wird von der Botschaft in Berlin die Unterschriften erhalten […]

    Nach der Übergabe der Unterschriften haben wir mit der Leiterin der politischen Abteilung der indonesischen Botschaft Lefianna H. Ferdinandus und weiteren Botschaftsangestellten ausführlich diskutiert, da der Botschafter terminlich verhindert war. Der Bedarf einer Aufklärungskampagne in Indonesien wurde zwar bestätigt, auch plant die Regierung eine landesweite Studie doch ein Gesetz gegen weibliche Genitalverstümmelung halten sie nicht für notwendig. Die Überzeugung, dass jede Form von weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung eine Menschenrechtsverletzung darstellt wurde nicht geteilt.

    Allahs Schöpfungsordnung und Gesetzlichkeit (Scharia) verstümmelt nicht.

    https://www.frauenrechte.de/online/index.php/themen-und-aktionen/weibliche-genitalverstuemmelung2/unser-engagement/aktivitaeten/6-februar/unterschriftenaktion-fgm

    „Einen Menschenrechtsansatz auf der Basis einer kultur- und geschlechter-sensiblen Perspektive in die Debatte einzuführen.“

    https://www.frauenrechte.de/online/index.php/themen-und-aktionen/weibliche-genitalverstuemmelung2/united-to-end-fgm

    ::

    .

    (FGM is a rising [ religious ] practice in southern Thailand and, with little regulation, concerns are at an all-time high.)

    By: Gabrielle Paluch | Al Jazeera 02.04.2015

    Female genital cutting in Thailand’s south

    Yala, Thailand – „Just a little,“ Dr Patimoh Umasa says, pinching the tip of her finger showing how she cuts the clitorises of small girls.

    […] Umasa uses a sterile size-11 surgical blade, and performs the procedure for free, because she says it’s a religious procedure.

    […] Like others, Dr Umasa believes that the procedure, if done by a doctor, should not be considered mutilation. […]

    .

    .

    Imam Abdullah Abu-Bakr of the Committee of Islamic Council of Yala says Muslims in the south are more observant than their co-religionists in Bangkok, because there are more foreign-educated imams and fewer distractions, such as the entertainment hub of Bangkok.

    He himself was educated in Syria and Malaysia.

    Thailand’s fatwa committee has not issued a fatwa surrounding the practice of sunat, but Imam Abdullah says everybody knows the practice is required for boys, typically in a public ceremony around age seven, and though is not absolutely required of women, it is something all women should do. […]

    http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia-pacific/2015/03/female-genital-cutting-thailand-south-150309083458995.html

    ::

    [ sunat perempuan ]

    Claudia Merli
    Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology
    Uppsala University

    Circumcision is obligatory (wādjib) according to al-Shāfi’ī and many of the doctors, sunna according to Mālik and the majority of them. It is further, according to al-Shāfi’ī, equally obligatory for males and females. As regards males it is obligatory to cut off the whole skin which covers the glans, so that this latter is fully denudated. As regards females, it is obligatory to cut off a small part of the skin in the highest part of the genitals (Wensinck 1986:20).

    Merli, Claudi (2008). „Sunat for girls in southern Thailand: its relation to traditional midwifery, male circumcision and other obstetrical practices.“ (PDF). Finnish Journal of Ethnicity and Migration. 3 (2): 32–41. Retrieved 11 August 2015.

    http://dro.dur.ac.uk/5302/1/5302.pdf

    ::

    Kuala Lumpur […] A big day awaits Najwa’s daughter – in accordance with Islamic law, her clitoris will be cut off. […]

    “I just take a needle and slit off the top of the clitoris, but it is very little, just one millimeter,” says Dr. Mighilia describing the surgery, and admitting that every now and then, she also performs a more severe circumcision. […]

    In 2009, the National Fatwa Council announced that female circumcision was obligatory for all Muslims. […]

    In accordance with the local version of Islam it is wajib – obligatory. The sunat, as the procedure is referred to in Malay

    Malaysia: Female genital mutilation on the rise | By: Zofia Reych | ASEAN Today 22.06.2016

    https://www.aseantoday.com/2016/06/malaysia-female-genital-mutilation/

    ::

    Ohne Chitan keine Tahara

    http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/khitan-SIM_4296?s.num=38&s.au=%22Wensinck%2C+A.J.%22&s.f.s2_parent_title=Encyclopaedia+of+Islam%2C+Second+Edition

    ILMU TARIKH AL-MUTUN
    Disusun oleh: Muhammad Kahfi al-Banna

    [ khitan perempuan ]

    http://islamology-quranhadisresearch.blogspot.de/2014/01/ilmu-tarikh-al-mutun.html

  37. Edward von Roy Says:

    Even the least invasive form of female ‘circumcision’ amounts to a major violation of a woman’s physical integrity, with serious consequences to her health.

    Internationally, some organisations prefer to use the term ‘female genital cutting’ (FGC) which they consider to be less derogatory to those affected. Others coin words like ‘female genital alteration’ (FGA) and promote the idea of „accepting de minimis non-therapeutic FGA“ as a so-called „compromise solution“ (Kavita Shah Arora and Allan J Jacobs).

    Nevertheless, the term ‘mutilation’ is employed by human rights activists and international organisations such as the Inter-African Committee (IAC) to underscore the seriousness of the intervention. The term FGC (female genital circumcision), however, obscures the serious physical and psychological effects of ritual genital mutilation on women.

    Classification of FGM (2007). Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons (WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, 1997).The WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA Joint Statement classified female genital mutilation into four types.

    Classification of female genital mutilation. The complete typology with sub-divisions:

    Type I — Partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy). When it is important to distinguish between the major variations of Type I mutilation, the following subdivisions are proposed:
    Type Ia, removal of the clitoral hood or prepuce only;
    Type Ib, removal of the clitoris with the prepuce.
    Type II — Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision). When it is important to distinguish between the major variations that have been documented, the following subdivisions are proposed:
    Type IIa, removal of the labia minora only;
    Type IIb, partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora;
    Type IIc, partial or total removal of the clitoris, the labia minora and the labia majora.
    Type III — Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris (infibulation). When it is important to distinguish between variations in infibulations, the following subdivisions are proposed:
    Type IIIa, removal and apposition of the labia minora;
    Type IIIb, removal and apposition of the labia majora.
    Type IV — All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.

    (source: WHO)

    Some Indonesian Sunni clerics of the MUI (Majelis Ulama Indonesia) and some Shia clerics of Dawoodi Bohra seem to demand that the „sunna“ circumcision of girls (khitan al-inath; khitan wanita; sunat perempuan) should be permissible world wide. In the US, above-mentioned Kavita Arora and Allan Jacobs argue that mild forms of “FGA” do not constitute a human rights violation, and thus promote that some of those forms could be offered and tolerated as a “compromise” to protect children from more extensive forms of “FGA“, allowing parents to uphold cultural and religious practices “without sacrificing the health and well-being of female children“. This development must be stopped.

    Every form of FGM should be banned everywhere. To achieve this, it is indispensable to talk about mutilation, and not to hide or trivialize the anti-feminist and anti-childish practice with terms such as circumcision (FGC) or alteration (FGA). There’s no such thing as ‚mild‘ or ‚minor‘ or ‚de minimis‘ FGM. ‚Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)‘ means zero tolerance even to the less invasive forms of FGM.

    „States Parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children.“ OHCHR | Convention on the Rights of the Child (Article 24)

  38. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    [ Syedna Taher Fakhruddin. Khuzaima Qutbuddin passed away on 30 March 2016 and appointed his son Taher Fakhruddin as his successor, who claims that he succeeded his father as the 54th Da’i al-Mutlaq. The rival claimants are currently fighting a declaration suit in the Hon’ble Bombay High Court. ]

    Khatna „by choice as an adult“ – who is an adult?

    Dauerbrenner Dawudi Bohra und FGM. Volljährigkeit oder Erwachsensein (adulthood) im Sinne von islamisch erwachsen? Die durch Syedna Taher Fakhruddin angeführte Scharia kennt weibliche Volljährigkeit. Erwachsen bedeutet neun Jahre alt (neun Mondjahre). Der Syedna erweckt den Eindruck 18 Jahre. Oder 16? Oder 14 oder zwölf Jahre? Beginnen wir gar nicht erst das Feilschen um die Fähigkeit zum genitalautonomen Einwilligen (age of consent), bleiben wir bei achtzehn. 18, Herr Fakhruddin?

    (Syed bedeutet spiritueller Führer, Syedna Unser spiritueller Führer. Syed means a leader, and Syedna means our leader.)

    Syedna clarified his stand on the female genetic mutilation issue saying it should not be made compulsory to the young girls, but allow then to decide once they reach adulthood. “Khatna is a practice condemned in the law of Islam, in our faith it is different from FGM, but it was misused, like many who wrongly used the oral triple talaq. We follow the law of the land and this law must prevail,” said Syedna Fakhruddin. He added, “Women can reach adulthood and do as per their choice. Any surgical procedure done by choice as an adult is not illegal as per Sharia law.”

    Taqiyya, fromme (hier schiitische) Notlüge: „Das Islamische Recht verurteilt die Praxis weiblicher Beschneidung. Khatna is a practice condemned in the law of Islam“.

    Den Sunniten ist die Chatna religiös empfohlen (hanafitisch, malikitisch, ggf. hanbalitisch) oder religiöse Pflicht (asch-Schafii).

    Einen 54. Dāʿʿī al-Muṭlaq gibt es noch nicht.

    Der – amtierende – 53rd Da’i al-Mutlaq hat auf die eigene (Dawudi Bohra) Pflicht zur Mädchenbeschneidung bei den (sunnitischen) Schafiiten hingewiesen. Ein paar Tage später ergänzte Mufaddal Saifuddin, dass der Muslim im Sinne des geltenden Rechts gesetzestreu leben soll, das staatliche Recht hat er gemeint nehmen wir einmal an, das offizielle staatliche).

    In der Hanbaliyya wird Chitan al-inath islamisch (religionsrechtlich) eingestuft als gelobt oder verpflichtend, je nach Scheich.

    Fakhruddin – 53rd Da’i al-Mutlaq – erfindet einen Bereich Chatna, in die offensichtlich lediglich FGM Typ III passt, Infibulation. Diese als einzige ist mit islamischer Begründung tatsächlich nicht zu machen.

    [ Vgl. aber die Presseerklärung. Der Rivale des 53. definiert – die autoritativen Texte geben das nicht her – mit Chatna lediglich eine FGM Typ Ia der WHO-Klassifikation; Syedna Taher Fakhruddin: CDH (clitoral de-hooding) or CHR (clitoral hood reduction). ]

    Talaq. Der – angeblich irgendwie falsch verstandene – Talaq muss auch weg aus den geltenden Paragraphen, das gesamte islamische Familienrecht (nicht nur der triple talaq).

    Mumbai: FGM for young girls and oral triple talaq discouraged by Syedna Taher Fakhruddin | By Staff Reporter | The Free Press Journal (Indian National Press, Bombay) 2017

    http://www.freepressjournal.in/mumbai/mumbai-fgm-for-young-girls-and-oral-triple-talaq-discouraged-by-syedna-taher-fakruddin/1040456

    Syed means a leader, and Syedna means our leader.

    http://www.islamhelpline.net/node/1239

    [ Sahiyo und Fakhruddin ]

    Sahiyo and Speak Out On FGM welcome the statement by Syedna Taher Fakhruddin of the Fatemi Dawat, which calls for the disallowing of FGC/khatna of the girl child.

    […] In this context we welcome the disallowing of khatna of minor girls. What their statement also says is that the CDH (clitoral de-hooding) procedure will be an elective procedure for the legal adult woman and not compulsory or enforced. We also would like to emphasise that it is not generally a medical necessity and can be done only if necessary on medical advice.

    We also appeal to all the leaders of the other Bohra sects to pay heed to the voices of so many women and call for an end to FGM/FGC/khatna.

    https://sahiyo.com/2016/05/08/joint-statement-on-syedna-taher-fakhruddins-stand-against-khatna/

    [ Aus der Presseerklärung des rivalisierenden Da’i al-Mutlaq ]

    In his statement, the rival Syedna says, „In view of the trauma that many girls undergo when this procedure is carried out, and in keeping with the law of the land, khafz (khatna) of girls should only be allowed after they attain legal adulthood, after which they are free to make their individual decision whether to do the medically, legally and religiously sanctioned CDH or CHR procedures (analogous to khafz).“

    He also claims that CDH (clitoral de-hooding) or CHR (clitoral hood reduction) are procedures that are „in line with the faith tradition which says that if the procedure is done, it should not be done when the girl is a minor.“ […]

    Clinically, clitoral de-hooding is a minor genital surgical procedure to remove excess prepuce tissue or reduce the skin overhanging the clitoris to heighten sexual experience. This theory contradicts that offered by those favouring FGM who describe it as a means to curb sexual desire.

    Rival Syedna denounces female genital mutilation, kindles hope | Mohua Das (Times of India Reporter) | TNN 07.05.2016

    http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/Rival-Syedna-denounces-female-genital-mutilation-kindles-hope/articleshow/52168301.cms

    [ Presseerklärung des rivalisierenden Da’i al-Mutlaq ]

    Office of the 54th Dai al-Mutlaq his holiness Syedna Taher Fakhruddin

    Ahmedabad, 13 May (SMS PR Agency)

    His Holiness
    Syedna Taher Fakhruddin
    Saheb TUS has always been
    concerned about the protec-
    tion of the rights of women
    and especially
    girl children
    in the community. Syedna
    Fakhruddin Saheb wishes to
    issue this statement now to
    clear the confusion caused
    by misguided statem
    ents
    made by those who have
    usurped control of the com-
    munity. They have made
    statements contrary to the
    faith limiting the education of
    the girl child, forcing a glass
    ceiling on the role women play
    in society, and undermining
    the position women have in
    a marriage. Women in the
    community have been bring-
    ing their plight to Syedna
    Fakhruddin Saheb, espe-
    cially a group of women who
    have recently brought to
    Syedna Fakhruddin Saheb’s
    attention the trauma which
    girl children undergo when
    circumcision (khafz] is carried
    out in an irregular and im-
    proper fashion for many years.
    In view of the trauma that
    many girls undergo when this
    procedure is carried out, and
    in keeping with the law of the
    land, Syedna Taher
    Fakhruddin Saheb says that
    khafz (khatna) of girls should
    only be allowed after they at-
    tain legal
    adulthood, after
    which they are free to make
    their individual decision
    whether to do the, medi-
    cally, legally and religiously
    sanctioned CDH or CHR pro-
    cedures (analogous to
    khafz]. This is in line with
    the faith tradition which says
    that if the procedure is done
    it should not be done when
    the girl is a minor. In con-
    trast, Female Genital
    Muti-
    lation (FGM) is an un-Islamic
    and horrific practice that
    Syedna Fakhruddin Saheb
    condemns categorically. His
    Holiness the late Dr. Syedna
    Taher Saifuddin Saheb RA,
    the 5151 Dai al-Mutlaq, in the
    early part of the 1900s, seeing
    the law of the land and the
    needs of modern society, clari-
    fied several temporal tradi-
    tions of the faith. For example,
    he gave clear instructions to
    the community that men and
    women should be allowed to
    marry only after they reach
    legal adulthood, even though
    the faith tradition allows them
    to be married after attaining
    physical maturity. It goes with-
    out saying that these instruc-
    tions have continued and con-
    tinue to be given today by
    Syedna Fakhruddin Saheb.

    Garvi Gujarat (Published Daily from Ahmedabad) 14.05.2016

    http://www.garvigujarat.co.in/paper/14-05-2016%20ED.pdf

  39. 1+1=2 Says:

    Jumana Nagarwala
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Dr. Jumana Nagarwala is an Indian-American physician who, in 2017, became the first person charged under the United States law criminalizing female genital mutilation. [1] Nagarwala is a Dawoodi Bohra, a member of the only religious community in India to regularly practice FGM. [2]

    Contents

    1 Accusations
    2 Education and professional experience
    3 References
    4 External Links and Further Reading

    Accusations

    Nagarwala, licensed in Michigan, was accused of cutting the genitals of two Minnesota girls who traveled to Michigan with their mothers on what they had been told was a „special girls‘ trip“. [3] They were instead taken to a clinic in Livonia, where Nagarwala operated on them. According to the criminal complaint against her, she is also accused of being complicit in the transportation of minors across state lines in order to commit a sexual crime on them, because two of her alleged victims were brought by their parents from Minnesota to Michigan for the procedure, and the parents communicated with her several times before bringing them. She faces a possible sentence of life in prison if convicted of transportation; also each of the mutilation charges carries a possible five-year sentence; additionally, she is accused of lying to a Federal law-enforcement agent about female genital mutilation. [4] The criminal complaint also states that several other young girls have informed Child Protective Services that Nagarwala has operated on their genitals, although the criminal complaint only directly accuses her of mutilating two girls.

    She was denied bail on the grounds that the court considers her a danger to the community and a flight risk.[5]

    The owners of the clinic where the mutilations were allegedly done, Dr. Fakhruddin Attar and his wife, Farida Attar, have been arrested and accused of being accomplices.[6][7]

    Education and professional experience

    She earned her medical degree from Johns Hopkins, graduating in 1998.[2]

    She has worked as an assistant director of the emergency medicine residency program at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit.[2]

    References

    1.
    https://www.justice.gov/usao-edmi/press-release/file/957376/download

    2.
    https://www.forbes.com/sites/ritarubin/2017/04/14/doctor-charged-with-female-genital-mutilation-has-published-research-overseen-residents/#cc43ce162241

    3.
    http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/detroit-city/2017/04/13/doctor-charged-genital-mutilation/100416734/

    4.
    See „External Links“ section below.

    5.
    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4421648/Detroit-doctor-charged-genital-mutilation-denied-bail.html

    6.
    http://detroit.cbslocal.com/2017/04/21/two-more-doctors-charges-with-female-genital-mutilation-on-girls-6-8-years-old/

    7.
    http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/midwest/ct-detroit-female-genital-mutilation-case-20170421-story.html

    External Links and Further Reading

    The criminal complaint against Dr. Nagarwala

    The criminal complaint against Dr. Attar et al.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jumana_Nagarwala

  40. STOP FGM | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jumana_Nagarwala | Female genital mutilation in the United States Says:

    Die Online-Enzyklopädie Wikipedia beinhaltet den Eintrag

    Jumana Nagarwala

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jumana_Nagarwala

    Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung in den USA | Wikipedia verlinkt zu Jumana Nagarwala

    Female genital mutilation in the United States

    Female genital mutilation in the United States occurs across the country. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined as „all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.“

    In April 2017, Jumana Nagarwala, a female doctor working at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit was charged with allegedly performing FGM in a medical clinic in Livonia, Michigan, on two girls who had traveled there from Minnesota with their parents. She denied the charge. This was the first federal prosecution for female genital mutilation in US history.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_genital_mutilation_in_the_United_States

  41. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    200 millions – die heute allein korrekte Zahl
    140 million women and girls – die falsche Zahl
    130 Millionen Mädchen und Frauen – falsche Zahl
    .
    .

    Detroit, USA (2017), islamische weibliche Genitalverstümmelung (FGM) wurde begangen durch Frau Nagarwala und die Eheleute Attar. Alle drei, zurzeit in Haft, morgen ist Gerichtsverhandlung, sind schiitische Dawudi Bohra aus dem Aktivistenkreis der örtlichen Andschuman-e-Nadschmi-Moschee, in der auch Herr Nagarwala Verantwortung trägt.

    130 Millionen (2015). Zahl inzwischen veraltet, d. h. heute falsch.

    Die weibliche Genitalverstümmelung ist und bleibt eine schwere Menschenrechtsverletzung. Laut UNICEF leben 130 Millionen Mädchen und Frauen mit den Folgen des Eingriffs.

    http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Infoservice/Presse/Meldungen/2015/150206_MRHH_FGM.html

    Desinformation leider noch bei Terre des Femmes (TdF)

    Weltweit sind 130 Millionen Mädchen und Frauen von weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung (engl.: Female Genital Mutilation, kurz FGM) betroffen

    https://frauenrechte.de/online/images/downloads/fgm/buechertischaktion/2013/Hintergrundinformationen_FGM.pdf

    : : : :

    200 Millionen, mehr als 200 Millionen Mädchen und Frauen

    On estime que plus de 200 millions de jeunes filles et de femmes, toujours en vie, ont été victimes de mutilations sexuelles pratiquées dans 30 pays africains, du Moyen Orient et de l’Asie où ces pratiques sont concentrées.

    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/fr/

    At least 200 million girls and women alive today living in 30 countries have undergone FGM/C

    unicef

    https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/female-genital-mutilation-and-cutting/

    Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting Country Profiles

    https://data.unicef.org/resources/female-genital-mutilation-cutting-country-profiles/

    INDONESIA
    STATISTICAL PROFILE ON FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION/CUTTING

    file:///C:/Users/dell/AppData/Local/Temp/Temp1_FGMC-Country-Profiles.zip/FGMC_IDN.pdf

    200 Millionen, das kann jeder wissen und das sollte man schreiben.

    Leider verwendet die über Jumana Nagarwala berichtende Presse in Detroit gestern die veraltete, die falsche Zahl und wirft das Wort Afrika ein.

    […] Worldwide, an estimated 140 million women and girls have undergone the procedure, according to the World Health Organization. More than 3 million girls in Africa undergo the procedure each year. […]

    [ and in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Saudi-Arabia, Syria ]

    Nagarwala is accused of mutilating the genitalia of two 7-year-old girls who were brought from Minnesota to Metro Detroit for the controversial procedure.

    She has denied cutting the girls, saying she merely performed a religious procedure that involved removing and then burying skin in the ground.

    Nagarwala, 44, a Henry Ford Health System emergency room physician from Northville, is accused of performing the procedure at a Livonia clinic.

    The clinic is owned by Dr. Fakhruddin Attar, 52, who has served as treasurer and a leader of the Farmington Hills mosque, according to the Anjuman-e-Najmi website.

    Attar and his wife, Farida, are charged with conspiracy to commit female genital mutilation and aiding and abetting female genital mutilation.

    The couple are scheduled to appear in federal court at 1 p.m. Wednesday, when a judge could release them on bond.

    Muslim group urges mosque to condemn genital mutilation | By Robert Snell | The Detroit News 25.04.2017

    http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/detroit-city/2017/04/25/mosque-faces-genital-mutilation-backlash/100914374/

    : : : :

    12:42 – 21.04.2017 aus Detroit, MI
    Robert Snell‏ @robertsnellnews

    Update: Arrests in female genital mutilation case provide yet another link to Metro Detroit mosque

    .

    https://twitter.com/i/web/status/855506932144144389

  42. Speramus Meliora • Resurget Cineribus Says:

    Anhörung zur Verhaftung für die Attars ist für Mittwoch um 1 Uhr ET.
    Vorläufige Gerichtsuntersuchung für Nagarwala Donnerstag um 1 Uhr ET vorgesehen.
    Gegen die Eltern der Mädchen ist [noch] keine Anklage erhoben worden. [Hoffentlich geschieht das bald.]

    A detention hearing for the Attars is scheduled for Wednesday at 1 p.m. ET.
    A preliminary court examination for Nagarwala is scheduled for Thursday at 1 p.m. ET.
    No charges have been filed against the parents of the girls.

    http://edition.cnn.com/2017/04/22/health/detroit-genital-mutilation-charges/

    ///

    .

    Nous espérons des temps meilleurs • Elle renaîtra des cendres
    We hope for better things • It will rise from the ashes

  43. Peninsulam Amœnam Says:

    Islamic FGM
    .
    .

    Islamic religious experts on female circumcision

    Debating the controversial topic of female circumcision/mutilation are Malika Zarrar (lecturer on Islamic religious law) and Muhammad Wahdan (Al Azhar university lecturer), both Egyptian residents.

    .

    ::

    Abu Usamah – Female circumcision (1)

    .

    ::

    Haitham al-Haddad – Female circumcision

    .

    ::

    Bilal Philips – Is Female Circumcision Allowed in Islam?

    Yes, Prophet Mohammad […] limited it to only a nick. A nick that would not affect the woman’s ability to enjoy the blessing of sexual relations and marriage

    .

    .

    ___ps://www.facebook.com/DrBilalPhilips/videos/10154006552909089/

    .

    “Yes, Prophet Mohammad (…) did approve, he did approve of female circumcision in [the City of] Madeena [ Medina ] when it was presented to him, but he limited it to only a nick. A nick that would not affect the woman’s ability to enjoy the blessing of sexual relations and marriage anymore that it would affect a male when he is circumcised. This is what Islam has permitted. […]

    In the Facebook discussion over his video, Bilal Philips wrote the following:

    “A nick means a very small cut, something like a scratch.”

    “It is recommended for males and permitted in the slightest form for females.”

    “Circumcision of females which involves cutting out body parts (genitalia) is haraam [prohibited] in Islam.”

    “He [Mohammad] permitted it [circumcision] when asked by the Muslims of [the City of] Madeenah, but he did not recommend it. Instead he instructed that it should be very slight.”

    Bilal Philips: “Does Islam support or allow female circumcision? Yes, but in a very limited or at a very limited scale…taking only a small portion from the end of the clitoris, this is all that is really permissible from Islamic perspective.”

    http://en.cijnews.com/?p=30357

    .

    CHILD MARRIAGE

    “For us in Islam, we have a natural principle, a natural dividing line, which is for a woman to be considered an adult, or that she may be married and have sexual relations etc. That dividing line is puberty. So whether one in this society, considers that person still to be a child or not, that’s not the issue. But it remains legitimate, that if a muslim man in his 50′s, even today, wanted to marry a young woman who was nine or ten, and she had reached puberty, it is legitimate.”

    Contemporary Issues – Prepared by: Dr.Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips

    [ Erwachsen als Mädchen? 9 Jahre. Spätestens mit zwölf. Sagen wir Pubertät, erste Menstruation. Einfach gesagt mit neun. ]

    “Islam sets the age of marriage at puberty, as it is the natural dividing line between childhood and adulthood. Menstruation indicates that a young girl has reached childbearing age.”

    “Does Islam support or allow female circumcision? Yes, but in a very limited or at a very limited scale…taking only a small portion from the end of the clitoris, this is all that is really permissible from Islamic perspective.”

    [ Bilal Philips: FGM Forbidden, Female Circumcision Allowed ]

    .

    https://tifrib.com/bilal-philips/

    .

    Dr. Bilal Philips: FGM Forbidden, Female Circumcision Allowed

    .

    .

    ::

    Female Genital Mutilation charges tied to religious sect in metro Detroit

    .

    ::

    Story of FGM from mouths of Bohra victims.
    ख़तना की कहानी मज़लूमों की ज़बानी

    Female Khatna or FMG: Bohra girls when around 7 years of age, her mother, Grandmother, a relative, or a neighbor lies her with luring promise and take her to a Bohra cutter who with help of 2-3 other strong accomplices, forcibly cuts her clitoris robbing her of sexual drive. This barbaric assault and post Khatna syndrome leaves her life scarred physically and mentally. After Khatna, the girl loses her God given sexual drive and cannot enjoy pleasure of orgasm when married. Their behavior becomes drastically skewed and different than other non-Khatna women.

    Bohra Syedna Mufaddal, like his predecessors, makes Bohras fearful of their girls coming into heat and indulging in sex before marriage. So, he has made it mandatory on all Bohras to cut the organ that creates sexual pleasure. This crazy edicts result in big tragedy for the girl, her husband, and the society; all lose because of this senseless, cruel and barbaric action.

    .

    ::

    Bohra chief Priest Syedna Mufaddal is very angry on female Khatna Issue.

    […] Bohra chief Priest Syedna Mufaddal is very angry on female Khatna Issue. He says “Amal to thavu j joiye અમલ તો થાવુજ જોઈએ. આ લોકો અમને શીખાવવા આયા છે? તમે ખ઼મર (શરાબ) પીઓ છો, જ઼ીના (fornication) અને બીજા ખ઼રાબ અમલ કરો છો તે તો બંધ કરો. અમે કોઇના થી નથી ડરતા. He is criticizing current agitation against female Khatna or FGM/FGC; the back ally surgical procedure when unqualified women forcibly cut clitoris 5 to 7-year-old Bohra baby girls. […]

    .

    ::

    [ Bohra Chief Mufaddal criticized in UK Parliament, for encouraging Islamic practice of female Khatna ]

    House of Lords
    9 June 2016
    Debate on FGM – Khatna
    References Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin TUS

    .

    ::

    Si Quæris Peninsulam Amœnam Circumspice
    If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you.

    .

    .

  44. Null Toleranz gegenüber weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung Says:

    Islamische weibliche Genitalverstümmelung
    Chatna. Khitan wanita, sunat perempuan

    Erstmals in der Geschichte der USA beginnt im April 2017 ein Strafprozess nach 18 USC 116 (female genital mutilation), nachdem in Detroit, Michigan, die Ärztin Dr. Jumana Nagarwala sowie die Eheleute Attar angezeigt worden sind. Die drei Beschuldigten sind Angehörige der schiitischen Dawudi Bohra.

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weibliche_Genitalverst%C3%BCmmelung

    Islamic FGM 2017 / FGM case Detroit (Michigan) 2017
    United States of America v. JUMANA NAGARWALA
    Jumana Fakhruddin Nagarwala
    Jumana F. Nagarwala
    Jumana Nagarwala

    מילת נשים [ WP FGM neuhebräisch derzeit leider voller Fehler ]

    (ختان) Chitan ḫitān / Chitan al-inath ḫitān al-ināṯ
    (واجب) wadschib wāǧib
    (مندوب) mandub mandūb

    https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%9E%D7%99%D7%9C%D7%AA_%D7%A0%D7%A9%D7%99%D7%9D

    מילת נשים

    Man füge ein, in diese Wikipedia-Tabelle: Malaysia, Indonesien, Thailand, den Iran, Saudi-Arabien und Syrien.
    Damit wir (סוף סוף), sof sof, endlich über die (מילת נשים) mila naschim, über die FGM sprechen können.
    (תודה לכם) Toda raba, vielen Dank.

    Schariagehorsam uns das Blaue vom Himmel herunterlügen. Warum nur als FN 1 auf dem gerade genannten Wiki? Weshalb also sagen …

    Aucune religion n’encourage cette pratique.

    http://www.ge.ch/egalite/doc/publications/violence/depliant-prevention-mgf-francais-anglais.pdf

    … warum? Ach so, deshalb. Europaführer Muslimbruderschaft.

    Le fait qu’un de nos citoyens, M. Tariq Ramadan, dont l’engagement pour la transmission des valeurs de non-violence, de tolérance et de recherche de dialogue

    http://ge.ch/grandconseil/memorial/seances/530302/54/26/

  45. Edward von Roy Says:

    United States of America v. JUMANA NAGARWALA

    Labia minora, kleine Schamlippen, das wäre – bzw. das ist (heute ist die erste Gerichtsverhandlung) – eine weibliche Genitalverstümmelung

    FGM Typ II

    On April 11, the girl was removed from her parents home for 72 hours, according to the court documents. During this time, medical exams revealed that her “labia minora was either surgically removed or the minora was sewn down.”

    http://ktla.com/2017/04/24/7-year-old-victim-in-u-s-first-genital-mutilation-case-says-procedure-hurted-a-lot/

    http://edition.cnn.com/2017/04/24/us/female-genital-mutilation-girl-testimony/

    Clitoral hood. „Ebenso war die Klitorisvorhaut beschädigt“, also ggf. die zusätzliche

    FGM Typ I
    (mindestens?!) als
    FGM Typ Ia

    According to court documents, when the girl arrived, her labia minora, the flaps on either side of the vaginal opening, was removed. Her clitoral hood was also damaged, according to the criminal complaint.

    http://edition.cnn.com/2017/04/24/us/female-genital-mutilation-girl-testimony/

    __

    Two Indian doctors, woman indicted in US genital mutilation case
    New Indian Express 27.04.2017

    Fakhruddin Attar, 53, and his wife, Farida Attar, 50, both from Michigan state, were charged with conspiring to perform female genital mutilations (FGM) on minor girls out of Fakhruddin Attar’s medical clinic in Livonia. The Attars were arrested on April 21. They were charged with helping another Indian-origin doctor Jumana Nagarwala, 44, of Michigan, perform FGM on minor girls. (…)

    The compliant against the Attars said that the couple arranged and assisted in the female genital mutilation of minor females performed by Nagarwala. While they allowed their clinic to be used by Nagarwala to perform the procedures, Farida assisted Nagarwala during the female genital mutilation procedures. (…)

    The World Health Organisation said female genital mutilation comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.

    [ Da wird also, Frau Nagarwala, auch nicht gestochen gekratzt gehobelt geraspelt ]

    By PTI | New Indian Express (Chennay / Madras, Indien)
    Published: 27th April 2017 04:13 AM

    http://www.newindianexpress.com/world/2017/apr/27/two-indian-doctors-woman-indicted-in-us-genital-mutilation-case-1598317–1.html

    __

    Dr. Fakhruddin Attar is an internist in Livonia, Michigan and is affiliated with multiple hospitals in the area, including Providence Hospital and St. Mary Mercy Hospital. He received his medical degree from Baroda Medical College and has been in practice for more than 20 years. He is one of 122 doctors at Providence Hospital and one of 95 at St. Mary Mercy Hospital who specialize in Internal Medicine.

    http://health.usnews.com/doctors/fakhruddin-attar-392771

    Jumana Fakhruddin Nagarwala
    ( Kurawadwala )

    http://www.whitepages.com/name/Jumana-Nagarwala

    Jumana Fakhruddin Nagarwala

    (…) Let’s not dance around the room here. (…) “Most Muslims believe sharia is the revealed word of God rather than a body of law developed by men based on the word of God,” Pew reported in 2013. “Muslims also tend to believe sharia has only one, true understanding.” (…)

    The Islam clash in America | By Cheryl K. Chumley – The Washington Times 18.04.2017

    http://m.washingtontimes.com/news/2017/apr/18/the-islam-clash-in-america/

    __

    In einer 2013 veröffentlichten Studie wurde in 10 muslimischen Staaten die Bindung an den Koran untersucht. Demnach wünscht die weit überwiegende Mehrheit der Befragten in 7 Staaten die Scharia als Gesetz, die Abkehr vom Islam sei mit dem Tod zu bestrafen (die Hälfte der Länder) und bis auf den Kosovo gilt mit 85 – 96 % die Auffassung, dass die Frau ihrem Mann immer gehorchen müsse. Untersuchte Länder: Afghanistan, Irak, Malaysia, Pakistan, Ägypten, Indonesien, Tunesien, Tadschikistan, Kosovo, Türkei.

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pew_Research_Center

    The survey finds that most Muslims believe sharia is the revealed word of God rather than abody of law developed by men based on the word of God. Muslims also tend to believe sharia has only one, true understanding (…)

    Sharia as the Official Law of the Land
    Favor or Oppose Making Sharia the Law of the Land?

    Pew Research Center | 30.04.2013 The World’s Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society

    http://www.pewforum.org/files/2013/04/worlds-muslims-religion-politics-society-full-report.pdf#page=46

  46. Cees van der Duin Says:

    Un médecin musulman de Detroit devient la première personne accusée d’avoir contrevenu à la loi interdisant les mutilations génitales féminines aux États-Unis

    par: Point de Bascule | 17.04.2017 |

    […] Selon Forbes.com, le docteur Jumana Nagarwala est vraisemblablement la première personne accusée d’avoir contrevenu à la loi interdisant les mutilations génitales féminines aux États-Unis. […]

    http://pointdebasculecanada.ca/medecin-musulman-detroit-devient-premiere-personne-accusee-avoir-contrevenu-loi-interdisant-mutilations-genitales-feminines-etats-unis/

    ::

    MGF: un médecin de Detroit risque la prison à vie

    BBC AFROQUE 14.04.2017

    […] Environ 200 millions de filles et de femmes dans le monde ont souffert d’une forme de FGM, selon l’ONU.

    La moitié de ces victimes vivent en Egypte, en Éthiopie et en Indonésie, selon l’ONU.

    http://www.bbc.com/afrique/monde-39600456

    ::
    ::

  47. Jacques Auvergne Says:

    Die Mädchenbeschneidung mit Koran und Sunna begründen können,
    neben den bisher genannten anderen,

    Ibn Maudud al-Mausili, hanafitischer Gelehrter des Fiqh
    sowie
    Abdel-Rahman al-Adawi, Kairoer Al-Azhar „Universität“, Mufti.
    .
    .

    ابن مودود الموصلي
    Ibn Mawdud al-Mawsili (d. 1284)
    Ibn Maudud al-Mausili
    hanafitischer Rechtsgelehrter aus dem heutigen Irak, starb 1284

    https://kitaabun.com/shopping3/product_info.php?products_id=4378

    http://kitaabun.com/shopping3/product_info.php?manufacturers_id=77=Imams%20(Hanafi,%20Other)&products_id=1984

    ابن مودود الموصلي

    https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%86_%D9%85%D9%88%D8%AF%D9%88%D8%AF_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B5%D9%84%D9%8A

    __

    عبد الرحمن العدوي
    Abdel-Rahman El Adawi
    `Abdur-Rahman Al-`Adawi, Professor of Fiqh at Al-Azhar
    Abdel-Rahman al-Adawi, al-Azhar Professor und Mufti

    http://aboutislam.net/author/abdur-rahman-al-adawi/

    Abdel Rahman Al-Adawi, Professor für Islamisches Recht in Kairo

    http://www.berliner-zeitung.de/heldenhafte-maertyrer-oder-verworfene-selbstmoerder–16662724

    [ Mufti al-Adawi zum Wasser von der Quelle Zamzam ]

    http://aboutislam.net/counseling/ask-the-scholar/acts-of-worship/effect-of-zamzam-water-outside-of-al-haram/

    عبد الرحمن العدوي
    Prof. Abd Al-Rahman Al-Adawi—Professor at Al-‎Azhar University and member of Senior Scholars Entity and Islamic Research Academy

    ___ps://www.facebook.com/hiisfl.edu/photos/a.362877073849829.1073741828.275273722610165/863268087144056/?type=3

    __

    [ Abdel-Rahman al-Adawi ]

    Abd al-Rahman Al-Adawi, al-Azhar Professor, writing in 1989, noted that female circumcision is makrumah—a meritorious action. He further claimed the procedure helped the woman,

    „remain shy and virtuous. In the Orient, where the climate is hot, a girl gets easily aroused if she is not circumcised. It makes her shameless and prey to her sexual instincts except those to whom Allah shows compassion.“

    [from Al-khitan, ra’y al-din wal-‘ilm fi khitan al-awlad wal-banat, 1989, pp 81-2, translated here]

    [ Ibn Maudud al-Mausili ]

    The classical Iraqi jurist Ibn Mawdud al-Musili (d. 1284), in his major Islamic law treatise [Al-ikhtiyar, vol. 4] declared,

    „If a region stops, of common agreement, to practice male and female circumcision, the chief of the state declares war [jihad] against that region because circumcision is a part of the rituals of Islam and its specificities“

    Cut the Clitoral Relativism: Islam, Sharia, and Female Genital Mutilation/“Circumcision” | by Andrew G. Bostom | PJ Media 11.04..2014

    https://pjmedia.com/blog/cut-the-clitoral-relativism-islam-sharia-and-female-genital-mutilationcircumcision/

  48. 1+1=2 Says:

    Henry Ford Hospital (HFH) feuert heimliche nebenberufliche islamische Ritualbeschneiderin

    Henry Ford fires accused genital mutilation doc

    By: Robert Snell
    The Detroit News 11:30 a.m. ET
    27.04.2017

    [ FGM Typ IV … Stechen, Raspeln, Kratzen, Schaben, Reiben – ein gehöriges Quantum Genitalgewebe also, folgt man der Rechtsanwältin, „eine Portion“ (a portion) vom Geschlechtsorgan wurde dem Kind angeblich „weggerieben, abgerieben“ (wiped off). Vielleicht wurde die Genitalportion ja auch abgehobelt oder abgeraspelt oder abgeschabt – und fraglich ist, ob dabei die Klitoris heil geblieben ist, man kann es nur hoffen.

    Wie auch immer, jede unnötige rituelle Verletzung ist FGM. Eine Sepsis beispielsweise kann aus einer noch so kleinen Verletzung resultieren, oder in einer Klinik vielleicht sogar MRSA. ]

    off a portion of the mucous membrane from the girls’ clitoris

    [ clitoris still intact? ]

    The doctor merely wiped off a portion of the mucous membrane from the girls’ clitoris, Smith said. A small amount was placed on a gauze pad and given to the family for burial, the lawyer added.

    http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/detroit-city/2017/04/27/genital-mutilation-doctor-fired/100974336/

    The doctor merely wiped off a portion of the mucous membrane from the girls’ clitoris, Thompson said. A small amount was placed on a gauze pad and given to the family for burial, the lawyer added.

    http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/detroit-city/2017/04/17/female-genital-mutilation-doctor/100563870/

    Henry Ford fires ER doctor at center of genital mutilation case

    Tresa Baldas
    Detroit Free Press
    27.04.2017

    http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/wayne/2017/04/27/henry-ford-fired-genital-mutilation/100973824/

  49. 1+1=2 Says:

    ::

    US Doctors Of Indian-Origin Fakhruddin Attar And Jumana Nagarwala, Indicted In Female Genital Mutilation Case

    indiatimes 27.04.2017

    (…) Fakhruddin graduated from the Baroda Medical College in Gujarat, India in 1988.

    The charges say that Nagarwala used to perform the medical procedure on minor girls at Burhani Medical Clinic (BMC) in Michigan that was owned and operated by Fakhruddin. Fakhruddin’s wife was employed at BMC as an officer manager.

    The complaint against the Attars said that the couple arranged and assisted in the female genital mutilation of minor females performed by Nagarwala. While they allowed their clinic to be used by Nagarwala to perform the procedures, Farida assisted Nagarwala during the female genital mutilation procedures. (…)

    http://www.indiatimes.com/news/world/us-doctors-of-indian-origin-fakhruddin-attar-and-jumana-nagarwala-indicted-in-female-genital-mutilation-case-276529.html

  50. vis-à-vis Says:

    Khatna. Islamic FGM is the surgical removal of a portion of genitalia

    “ they claim it is an Islamic religious practice “

    They are right.

    hijab is an Islamic religious practice
    nine years old child bride is an Islamic religious practice
    polygamy is an Islamic religious …
    talaq is an Islamic …
    stoning is an …
    establishing a caliphate is an Islamic …
    killing the apostates is an Islamic religious …
    jihad is an Islamic religious practice

    sunat perempuan is an Islamic religious …
    khitan wanita is an …
    khitan al-inath …

    FGM is an Islamic religious practice

    “ She denies any wrongdoing and claims she was performing a religious practice for families in a Muslim sect “

    From an Islamic point of view she is right, … = NO wrongdoing

    from the perspective of universal human rights = wrongdoing
    in line with medical ethics or not = wrongdoing
    from the perspective of US American Law = wrongdoing

    “ doctors reports obtained by the Detroit Free Press indicate the children suffered more severe injuries including scarring, a small tear, lacerations and what appeared to be the surgical removal of a portion of genitalia. “

    I say …

    GUILTY

    __________

    ( Why haven’t the parents also been charged? )

    Two Detroit doctors and a woman are charged over genital mutilation of two seven-year-old girls – but they claim it is an Islamic religious practice and no crime was committed

    By: Emily Crane For Dailymail.com

    MailOnline (The Daily Mail) 27.04.2017

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4451786/Three-charged-genital-mutilation-two-young-girls.html

  51. vis-à-vis Says:

    Three Michigan medical professionals were indicted

    Attorney Mary Chartier for doctor says client „being persecuted because of their religious beliefs“

    Mary Chartier: “I do believe that the government does not fully understand the religious practices of Dr. Attar and Dr. Attar’s religion, and I think that’s why we are in this courthouse today, and what we’ll be fighting over for the next few months.”
    .
    .
    .

    […] The Attars […] hearing was postponed until May 3.

    Dr. Attar’s attorney Mary Chartier, who spoke to reporters after Wednesday’s initial appearance, said her client is „not aware of any crimes committed at his clinic“ and that „what happened at the clinic was not FGM.“ […]

    Mary Chartier said that at the heart of her client’s defense is a misunderstanding over his religious practice. When asked to clarify what that practice was, she did not respond.

    „I do believe that the government does not fully understand the religious practices of Dr. Attar and Dr. Attar’s religion, and I think that’s why we are in this courthouse today, and what we’ll be fighting over for the next few months,“ Mary Chartier said.

    „They have a religious belief to practice their religion. And they are Muslims and they’re being under attack because of it. I believe that they are being persecuted because of their religious beliefs and I do not make that allegation lightly,“ Mary Chartier said.

    Farida Attar’s attorney, Matt Newburg, did not speak to reporters following the hearing. Over the weekend, he told CNN his „client has not admitted guilt.“ […]

    The Detroit Free Press reported that at the hearing that Smith said her client removed membrane from the girls‘ genital area using a „scraper“ as part of a religious practice. […]

    Prosecutor: ‚Brutal‘ genital mutilation won’t be tolerated in US (Achja, Herr oder Frau Prosecutor, meinen Sie dieses: Die deutlich weniger brutale FGM oder die unzweideutig nichtbrutale FGM möge zeitnah toleriert werden in den USA …?) | by: Mayra Cuevas and Sonia Moghe, CNN | Updated 0103 GMT (0903 HKT) 27.04.2017

    http://edition.cnn.com/2017/04/26/health/fgm-indictment-michigan/

    __
    __

    […] Indeed: the government is likely clueless as to the Islamic justifications for female genital mutilation. Chartier is getting right to the heart of the matter: apparently she intends to argue that female genital mutilation (contrary to constantly repeated establishment media myth) is justified in Islam, and that therefore Dr. Attar was just exercising his freedom of religion. If that is really what she intends to do, this will become a test case for the spread of Sharia practices in the U.S.: either Muslims will be allowed to violate existing U.S. laws under the rubric of the freedom of religion, or they will be called upon to obey U.S. laws even when those laws conflict with the teachings of Islam. If the court rules for the latter, the U.S. will have a chance to continue to exist as a free society. If the court rules for the former, it will be opening the door to all manner of jihad activity and Sharia practices that violate laws regarding equality of rights and equality of access to services, and no one will be able to say a word against the spread of Sharia in the U.S.

    “They have a religious belief to practice their religion. And they are Muslims and they’re being under attack because of it. I believe that they are being persecuted because of their religious beliefs and I do not make that allegation lightly,” Chartier said….

    No, they’re “being under attack” for mutilating girls’ genitals. But Chartier is right: female genital mutilation is indeed sanctioned in Islam. “Circumcision is obligatory (for every male and female) (by cutting off the piece of skin on the glans of the penis of the male, but circumcision of the female is by cutting out the bazr ‘clitoris’ [this is called khufaadh ‘female circumcision’]).” — ‘Umdat al-Salik e4.3, translated by Mark Durie, The Third Choice, p. 64

    Why is it obligatory? Because Muhammad is held to have said so: “Abu al- Malih ibn Usama’s father relates that the Prophet said: ‘Circumcision is a law for men and a preservation of honour for women.’” — Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 5:75

    “Narrated Umm Atiyyah al-Ansariyyah: A woman used to perform circumcision in Medina. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to her: ‘Do not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband.’” — Abu Dawud 41:5251

    “Do not cut severely,” but not “Do not cut.”

    That’s why it is so common around the world. A Muslim cleric in Russia said that “all women should be circumcised.” A Muslim cleric in India likewise urged that it be done. A Muslim cleric in Australia said that Islamic law permitted the practice. A leading U.S. Muslim jurist from the Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America (AMJA) said it was an “honor” in Islam. A marabout — a Muslim holy man — was arrested in France for having it done on his daughters. In the UK, there were 5,500 cases of FGM in 2016 alone. It is commonly claimed to be an East African problem, but 93% of Muslim women in Malaysia have suffered this procedure, and it is common in Indonesia. In one province in Iran, 60% of the women have suffered FGM.

    It is certain to become increasingly common in the United States. And if Mary Chartier succeeds, it will become legal, as a matter of freedom of religion. This case bears close watching. […]

    Michigan: Lawyer says doctors accused of FGM are “Muslims and they’re being under attack because of it” | By: Robert Spencer | Jihad Watch 27.04.2017

    https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/04/michigan-lawyer-says-doctors-accused-of-fgm-are-muslims-and-theyre-being-under-attack-because-of-it

    __
    __

    it is irrelevant why she did it!

    FGM is against the law of the land and for that she must be punished!

    Strip of her medical licence (…)

  52. Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation Says:

    Life, Liberty, & the Pursuit of Happiness: To be 18 years old and still have INTACT genitals
    .

    [ WHO – World Health Organization – Female genital mutilation – Fact sheet – Updated February 2017 ]

    „Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.“

    No health benefits, only harm

    FGM has no health benefits, and it harms girls and women in many ways. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and interferes with the natural functions of girls‘ and women’s bodies. Generally speaking, risks increase with increasing severity of the procedure.

    Immediate complications can include:

    severe pain
    excessive bleeding (haemorrhage)
    genital tissue swelling
    fever
    infections e.g., tetanus
    urinary problems
    wound healing problems
    injury to surrounding genital tissue
    shock
    death.

    Long-term consequences can include:

    urinary problems (painful urination, urinary tract infections);
    vaginal problems (discharge, itching, bacterial vaginosis and other infections);
    menstrual problems (painful menstruations, difficulty in passing menstrual blood, etc.);
    scar tissue and keloid;
    sexual problems (pain during intercourse, decreased satisfaction, etc.);
    increased risk of childbirth complications (difficult delivery, excessive bleeding, caesarean section, need to resuscitate the baby, etc.) and newborn deaths;
    need for later surgeries: for example, the FGM procedure that seals or narrows a vaginal opening (type 3) needs to be cut open later to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth (deinfibulation). Sometimes genital tissue is stitched again several times, including after childbirth, hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing both immediate and long-term risks;
    psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.);
    health complications of female genital mutilation.

    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/

    ::

    18 U.S. Code § 116 – Female genital mutilation

    https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/116

    18 U.S.C.
    United States Code, 2011 Edition
    Title 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
    PART I – CRIMES
    CHAPTER 7 – ASSAULT
    Sec. 116 – Female genital mutilation
    From the U.S. Government Printing Office, http://www.gpo.gov

    § 116. Female genital mutilation

    (a) Except as provided in subsection (b), whoever knowingly circumcises, excises, or infibulates the whole or any part of the labia majora or labia minora or clitoris of another person who has not attained the age of 18 years shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

    (b) A surgical operation is not a violation of this section if the operation is—

    (1) necessary to the health of the person on whom it is performed, and is performed by a person licensed in the place of its performance as a medical practitioner; or

    (2) performed on a person in labor or who has just given birth and is performed for medical purposes connected with that labor or birth by a person licensed in the place it is performed as a medical practitioner, midwife, or person in training to become such a practitioner or midwife.

    (c) In applying subsection (b)(1), no account shall be taken of the effect on the person on whom the operation is to be performed of any belief on the part of that person, or any other person, that the operation is required as a matter of custom or ritual.

    (Added Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §645(b)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–709.)

    Effective Date

    Section 645(c) of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting this section] shall take effect on the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”

    Congressional Findings

    Section 645(a) of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208 provided that: “The Congress finds that—

    “(1) the practice of female genital mutilation is carried out by members of certain cultural and religious groups within the United States;

    “(2) the practice of female genital mutilation often results in the occurrence of physical and psychological health effects that harm the women involved;

    “(3) such mutilation infringes upon the guarantees of rights secured by Federal and State law, both statutory and constitutional;

    “(4) the unique circumstances surrounding the practice of female genital mutilation place it beyond the ability of any single State or local jurisdiction to control;

    “(5) the practice of female genital mutilation can be prohibited without abridging the exercise of any rights guaranteed under the first amendment to the Constitution or under any other law; and

    “(6) Congress has the affirmative power under section 8 of article I, the necessary and proper clause, section 5 of the fourteenth Amendment, as well as under the treaty clause, to the Constitution to enact such legislation.”

    https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2011-title18/html/USCODE-2011-title18-partI-chap7-sec116.htm

    ::

    Dr. Jumana Nagarwala, 44, of Northville, is charged with performing female genital mutilation (FGM) on girls who were 6 to 8 years old at the Burhani Medical Clinic. Nagarwala, the clinic owner Dr. Fakhruddin Attar, and his wife Farida Attar all face charges in the case. All three are expected to head to trial.

    Nagarwala was arrested April 12 and detained April 17. Henry Ford Health System said she was placed on administrative leave April 13. Local 4 and ClickOnDetroit learned Thursday [ April 27 ] she has been terminated from her position as an emergency department physician at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit.

    http://www.clickondetroit.com/news/dr-jumana-nagarwala-fired-by-henry-ford-amid-female-genital-mutilation-case

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