496. FGM ist sehr islamisch … überall, auch in Kenia

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FGM in Kenia 2018

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Constitutional Petition 8 of 2017

http://kenyalaw.org/caselaw/cases/view/154401

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Machakos petition no. 8 of 2017 Dr. Tatu Kamau vs. The Hon. Attorney General and Anti-Female Genital Mutilation Board

The petition was filed on the 24th of July, 2017. The Petitioner’s main contention is that female circumcision ought not to be prohibited since it forms part of culture. Also, she contends that the ANTI-FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION BOARD is not legally constituted

https://www.fidakenya.org/news/machakos-petition-no-8-of-2017-dr-tatu-kamau-vs-the-hon-attorney-general-and-anti-female-genital-mutilation-board/

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Dr Tatu Kamau, in the case before Justice David Kemei

Legalise Female Genital Mutilation, says doctor in court | Daily Nation (Kenya) 18.01.2018

https://www.nation.co.ke/news/Legalise-female-circumcision–says-doctor-in-court/1056-4267584-11ajval/index.html

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The Machakos High Court has referred the pro-FGM case by Dr Tatu Kamau to Chief Justice David Maraga

By ANDREW MBUVA | Form 3-judge bench to hear pro-FGM case, Machakos court asks Maraga | The Star (Kenya) 14.06.2018

https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2018/06/14/form-3-judge-bench-to-hear-pro-fgm-case-machakos-court-asks-maraga_c1772969

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Email vom 06.11.2018 an info@tonymwebia.co.ke

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Dear Tony Mwebia,

today you say via twitter: „FGM is not supported in any major religious texts“

– FGM clearly is an Islamic obligation for all Muslims of Shafii madhhab – and FGM is an Islamic obligation for Shia Dawoodi Bohra.

You continue saying, today: „and moreover many religious leaders believe that this tradition should end“

– Kairo-based al-Azhar has NEVER EVER forbidden FGM Type Ia or FGM Type IV

In short / Abstract
1. FGM is very, very Islamic – and
2. al-Azhar does NOT condemn it.

Yours
Edward von Roy, social worker

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s o u r c e s

#MenENDFGM @TonyMwebia

Fact Check via @WHO. #FGM is not supported in any major religious texts and moreover many religious leaders believe that this tradition should end. #FGMNotMyReligion #EndFGM #MenENDFGM

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#MenENDFGM

https://tonymwebia.co.ke/menendfgm/

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“Cease fire has been Declared but the ‘War’ against FGM/C is far from over”

Posted on 09.05.2018 by Tony Mwebia

According to Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) 2014 religion has been alluded to as one of the main reasons for FGM/C among the Muslim communities. Majority of Somali women (82 per cent) and men (83 per cent) believe FGM/C is a religious requirement. […]

https://tonymwebia.co.ke/religion-and-female-genital-mutilation/

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World Health Organization (WHO) on Twitter: „is not supported in any major religious texts and moreover many religious leaders believe that this tradition should end.“

06.02.2018 – Embed Tweet. #FGM is not supported in any major religious texts and moreover many religious leaders believe that this tradition should end.

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Muslim leaders delink Islam from female genital mutilation

Deputy Chief Kadhi Rashid Ali Omar said there is a difference between culture and religion saying that pastoralist communities that practice FGM do it in line with their traditions and is not supported by Islamic law. [ That is wrong – in fact, there is no Islam without female genital mutilation / FGM ]

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Islamic scholars strongly oppose Female circumcision

Islamic scholars in the country have come out strongly to oppose the notion that the religion supports Female circumcision. Led by the deputy Chief Kadhi Rashid Ali Omar, the scholars said that people mostly mistake the cultural practices of the pastoralist communities who are mostly Muslim and assume the Islamic religion also supports the same.

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Eines Tages begegnete Mohammed der zum Islam konvertierten muqaṭṭiʿatu l-buẓūr (amputatrice di clitoridi, coupeuse de clitoris, cutter of clitorises), der Frauenbeschneiderin Umm ʿAṭiyya. Die Gottgehorsame befragte den Propheten nach der religiösen Rechtmäßigkeit ihrer täglichen Arbeit und Allahs Sprecher stellte fest:

أشمِّي ولا تنهَكي
ašimmī wa-lā tanhakī
[Cut] slightly and do not overdo it
[Schneide] leicht und übertreibe nicht

Oder Mohammed verkündete den Willen des Himmels so:

اختفضن ولا تنهكن
iḫtafiḍna wa-lā tanhikna
Cut [slightly] without exaggeration
Schneide [leicht] und ohne Übertreibung

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—–Original-Nachricht—–

Betreff: Re: STOP FGM in Kenya – STOP FGM world-wide

Datum: 06.11.2018 15:47:09

von: Tony Mwebia
an: „Edward von Roy“

How do you do. Where are you based my Brother.

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Mail von heute 21:47 Uhr von Edward von Roy an Tony Mwebia in Kenia

Hello my brother, thank you very much for your reply,

I am a social worker – as you are.

I am an intactivist (activist against FGM or MGM) based in Germany, Europe.

Zero tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) = zero tolerance even to the less invasive forms of FGM.

Even the ‘mild Sunna’ type of FGM is not mild: it is damaging, painful and a traumatic experience. Perhaps you may have heard about the criminal case of Dr. Jumana Nagarwala, an US-based (female) doctor and Islamic circumciser (FGM) of several seven years old girls.

According to religion (Islam) khitan al-inath (Islamic FGM) is wajib (farD), is a religious obligation – a boy or a girl HAS to be cut (mutilated).

Shafii madhhab of Sunni Islam does NOT difference between a boy or a girl – her or she HAS to be cut. That is fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) – so, if we really want to stop FGM in East Afrika – Shafii madhhab is usual – we have to stop khitan al-inath (sunat perempuan).

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Let us go away fom the – worth protecting and defending – UDHR (universal declaration of human rights, 10 december 1948) for a moment – let us read the hadith:

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Hadith. The Prophet said to Umm Atiyya (or: to Umm Habiba)

أشمِّي ولا تنهَكي
ašimmī wa-lā tanhakī
[Cut] slightly and do not overdo it

Or Muhammad said:

اختفضن ولا تنهكن
iḫtafiḍna wa-lā tanhikna
Cut [slightly] without exaggeration

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Back to the one and indivisable mankind and civilisation (UDHR – 10.12.1948).

Let us STOP any type of FGM – type I, II, III, IV. Any. No cut, no incision, no drop of blood, no pain.

For a girl or a boy. As women and men shall be equal – and have the same full civil rights.

Any ritual circumcision or other ritual injury of the genital of a girl or a boy below the age of eighteen years should be banned on a global level.

Good luck finishing the FGM in Kenya wishes you,

Edward von Roy

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Schlagwörter: , , , , , , ,

19 Antworten to “496. FGM ist sehr islamisch … überall, auch in Kenia”

  1. Adriaan Broekhuizen Says:

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    Tony Mwebia #MenENDFGM

    https://voiceofsalam.com/2018/03/02/meet-anti-fgm-activist-tony/

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    About

    Voice of Salam (Voice of Peace) was founded in 2015 to raise awareness of a range of global issues and promote understanding of human rights, interfaith and current social and cultural issues.

    Vision

    Voice of Salam’s vision is of a world where every human being is treated with equal dignity with full respect to their human rights, regardless of their gender, sexuality, ethnic background, nationality or religious affiliation.

    https://voiceofsalam.com/about/

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    Elizabeth Arif-Fear

    „I went on to study languages/translation and human rights at postgraduate level, including some study within Islamic Studies. I converted to Islam whilst in my final year at university.

    My main interests include women’s rights, children’s rights, religious/cultural/linguistic rights, minority, refugee and migrant rights and issues surrounding post-colonialism, immigration, multiculturalism and both intercultural and interfaith work.“

    https://voiceofsalam.com/our-team/

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    Elizabeth Arif-Fear

    Elizabeth Arif-Fear is a writer and human rights campaigner. She is founder of Voice of Salam which works to inform others about a range of human rights, political, social and cultural issues including feminist approaches to Islam.

    http://sister-hood.com/elizabeth-arif-fear/to-my-future-daughter/

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  2. STOP FGM in Kenya Says:

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    Dr Tatu Kamau must lose case to legalise FGM, FIDA says

    By JOSEPH NDUNDA @joseph_ndunda THE STAR 25.06.2018

    25.06.2018 – FIDA chairperson Josephine Mongare said that Dr Tatu Kamau, who wants the practice legalised, is jeopardising the gains.

    Dr Tatu Kamau has filed a petition at the High Court in Machakos, also wants the Anti-FGM Board disbanded. She argues that the law that criminalises FGM is against the cultures of many communities so it should be repealed.

    Kamau also says that the practice was part of African cultures before colonisation and the Western culture.

    But Fida chairperson Josephine Mongare noted that the practice is harmful to women and has caused many deaths.

    […]

    Dr Kamau wants all females, especially adults, allowed to make choices concerning their bodies without any legal restrictions.

    Mongare, however, said that legalising FGM will see more women compelled to undergo the cut to fit into societies.

    „What do you think will make a 45-year-old woman agree to FGM? It will definitely be because she wants to be accepted and assimilated into the family she is married to. That will not necessarily be about her choices but about external coercion,“ she said.

    […]

    https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2018/06/25/dr-tatu-kamau-must-lose-case-to-legalise-fgm-fida-says_c1777600

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  3. 1+1=2 Says:

    #MenENDFGM @TonyMwebia

    Sheikh Ismail Komora presenting on why #FGM is practised despite not being a religious requirement. #ItTakesUsAllKE to #EndFGM
    #FGMNotMyReligion

    _ttps://twitter.com/TonyMwebia/status/1072399053844025344

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  4. 1+1=2 Says:

    #MenENDFGM @TonyMwebia

    Sheikh Abdi, “ FGM preceeds Islamic religion. The notion that #FGM is an Islamic issue is misplaced and misleading“

    #ItTakesUsAllKE to #EndFGM #FGMNotMyReligion

    _ttps://twitter.com/TonyMwebia/status/1072051097748103168

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  5. Edward von Roy Says:

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    „Stop this incitement to break the law“

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    Quelle: #MenENDFGM | @TonyMwebia sagte 03:39 – 16.12.2018

    This is not only sickening but it shows how ignorant we are when it comes to matters our women and girls. Something needs to be done to stop this incitement to break the law #EndFGM cc @EstherPassaris @HonWangari @AFGMBoard

    _ttps://twitter.com/TonyMwebia/status/1074267685322702848

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    … am 13.12.2018 hatte die Kenianerin (und ggf. sogar Juristin) Fridah Kiplagat das Recht auf FGM u. a. mit dem Kindeswohl begründet:

    “ schließlich darf eine unbeschnittene Frau nocht nicht einmal an der Beschneidungsfeier ihres eigenen Sohnes teilnehmen – uncircumcised women cannot attend to her son’s iniitiation “

    FGM-Verteidigerin Fridah Kiplagat :

    “ In meiner Community beispielsweise ist die FGM gar nicht sonderlich zerstörend. Lediglich die Süße wird weggenommen, ohne dass dem Genital viel Schaden zugefügt wird. FGM in my community isn’t as destructive, it only takes away the sweetness without much damage to the genitalia. “

    Von Kenias Regierung wie von den NGOs fordert sie:

    „die Abkehr von der Opferrolle – stop focusing on FGM from the perspective of the victim “

    Noch nicht einmal ein nettes Schwätzchen am Gartenzaun oder auf der Straße mit der (selbstredend initiierten) Nachbarin kann die Unbeschnittene genießen, wie uns Kiplagat warnt und zur Beibehaltung der FGM ermahnt:

    “ an uncircumcised woman cannot engage in mushene with a circumcised woman “

    h t t ps://twitter.com/TonyMwebia/status/1074267685322702848

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    Wie wir bei Flo lernen, bedeutet mushene je nach Kontext:

    Schwatz, Plauderei, Smalltalk; Flirten altmodisch gesagt Süßholzraspeln; Netzwerken, Kontakteknüpfen, Beziehungspflege im Beruf; Klüngeln, „Vitamin B“, sich sonstig nach oben schleimen; im kirchlichen Umfeld einem Dritten gegenüber frömmlerisch über jemanden besorgt tun, weil dieser den Pfad der Tugend verlassen haben könnte; Klatsch & Tratsch, Gerüchte weitertragen oder über jemanden Gerüchte streuen; jemanden von der Platte putzen, ihn dissen.

    For those who don’t understand what mushene means, it’s simply “gossip” in Kikuyu language and used commonly as a sheng term as well.

    Mushene…gossip or serious business? | Flo’s & Corners

    https://flonjau.wordpress.com/tag/mushene/

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    https://twitter.com/mushene_nairobi?lang=de

    https://twitter.com/mushene_nairobi?lang=de

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    Mushene Ya Nairobi
    @Mushene_Nairobi

    This all about the latest jokes, gossip and rumours about what is going down in the city (NAIROBI) be free to post any For the Latest Gossip.

    _ttps://twitter.com/mushene_nairobi?lang=de

    https://twitter.com/mushene_nairobi?lang=de

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  6. Edward von Roy Says:

    Das hat doch mit dem Islam nichts zu tun …

    Sadia Hussein: „FGM has nothing to do with religion“

    Executive Summary: „It is clear that there is no hadith (…) that enforces FGM.“

    Anti-FGM Board · Pamoja Tukomeshe · Ukeketaji : Frequently Asked Questions on FGM: „there is no evidence that FGM is supported by any religion“



    Eradicating female genital mutilation
    Resource Book

    “ es gibt keinen dokumentierten Nachweis, dass irgendeine Religion FGM unterstützt “

    [Solange man als staatsnaher Anti-FGM-Aktivismus immer nur unvollständig dokumentiert, gibt es in Kenia in der Tat keine derartige, die FGM-Hadithe und schafiitischen Fatawa zitierende sprich geboten islamkritische Dokumentation). Vgl. andernorts: there is no (…) evidence that FGM is supported by any religion (s. u.).]

    http://antifgmboard.go.ke/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/RESOURCE-BOOK-TEXT-7-Copy.pdf


    Das neue Handbuch: “ Understanding the Kenya Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act, 2011 „

    [„Eine vereinfachte Version, simplified version of the Prohibition of FGM Act“ (T. Mw.), na hoffentlich kann jedermann im pocket hand book ein unzweideutiges Verbot auch von FGM Typ Ia sowie von FGM Typ IV lesen.]


    #MenENDFGM

    ‏“ Another important book launched yesterday is the „pocket hand book“ simplified version of the Prohibition of #FGM Act. The two in one book has both swahili & english version. This was done by @equalitynow and @AFGMBoard #EndFGM “

    h t tps://twitter.com/TonyMwebia/status/1073872107820498944


    No. 32 of 2011 – Kenya Law

    Act Title: PROHIBITION OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION

    An Act of Parliament to prohibit the practice of female genital mutilation, to safeguard against violation of a person’s mental or physical integrity through the practice of female genital mutilation and for connected purposes

    http://www.kenyalaw.org/lex/actview.xql?actid=No.%2032%20of%202011


    [ Anti – FGM Board Ke on Twitter ]

    Anti – FGM Board Ke @AFGMBoard

    @AFGMBoard in collaboration with its partners and stakeholders will tomorrow launch 11 Anti -FGM Strategic documents at @Laicoregency. The event will be graced by Cabinet Secretary @mo_psyga, @CSMargaretKobia CC @PS_Kwekwe @lolojuberna @UNFPAKen @UNICEFKenya @SadearH @TonyMwebia

    h t tps://twitter.com/AFGMBoard/status/1073271704854646785


    First National Conference on Ending Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya

    6 – 8 February 2018

    It is clear that there is no hadith, chapter, verse or text, in the Bible or the Koran that enforces FGM. “ ( Executive Summary )

    (…)

    FGM has nothing to do with religion as both Christians and Muslims practise it; it is a retrogressive culture with no benefit to the girl child. We should not use religion for our own handmade problems. “ ( Sadia Hussein – Coordinator, Daaya Women Group, Tana River County )

    http://antifgmboard.go.ke/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/FGM-Conference-Report-DRAFT-2-ProseWorks-FINAL-CLEAN-COPY1-2-Copy.pdf

    Anti-FGM Board · Pamoja Tukomeshe · Ukeketaji : Frequently Asked Questions on FGM: „there is no evidence that FGM is supported by any religion

    [ Gleichwohl erfreulich an den FAQs on FGM: die (fast) komplette WHO-Kategorisierung weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung wird aufgeführt (warum fehlt bei FGM Typ II der seltene, die Klitoris unversehrt lassende Subtyp), also auch FGM Typ Ia und FGM Typ IV; vorab zweckmäßig eingeleitet:

    Female genital mutilation, also known as female genital cutting (FGC) includes all procedures involving the partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia, or any other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.“ (What is FGM?).

    Erfreulich zudem: In Kenia ist – PROHIBITION OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION ACT No. 32 of 2011 – auch jedes Mobbing einer sog. Unbeschnittenen (oder eines Mannes, der sie heiratet oder anderweitig unterstützt) strafbewehrt verboten:

    Section 25: Use of derogatory or abusive language

    Any person who uses derogatory or abusive language that is intended to ridicule, embarrass or otherwise harm a woman for having not undergone FGM, or a man for marrying or otherwise supporting a woman who has not undergone FGM, commits an offence and shall be liable, upon conviction, to imprisonment for a term not less than six months, or to a fine not less than fifty thousand shillings or both.

    Meine unautorisierte Übersetzung:

    Abschnitt 25 Gebrauch einer abfälligen oder missbräuchlichen Sprache

    Jede Person, die abfällig oder missbräuchlich redet, d. h. eine Sprache benutzt, die dazu bestimmt ist, sich über eine Frau lustig zu machen bzw. diese lächerlich machen, sie zu beschämen bzw. in Verlegenheit bringen oder sie anderweitig zu verletzen, weil sie eine Frau ist, die sich keiner Genitalverstümmelung unterzogen hat, oder die gegen einen Mann gerichtet ist, der sie heiratet oder der auf andere Weise eine Frau unterstützt, die keine FGM durchgemacht hat, begeht eine Straftat und soll verurteilt werden zu einer Freiheitsstrafe von mindestens sechs Monaten oder zu einer Geldstrafe von nicht weniger als fünfzigtausend Schilling oder zu beidem.

    http://antifgmboard.go.ke/faqs-on-fgm/

    harambee !!!

  7. harambee !!! Says:

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    Lake Bogoria

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    Kenyan lawyer / advocate

    Fridah Kiplagat ( Lotuiya )

    h t t ps://twitter.com/TonyMwebia/status/1074264808294440960

    Fridah Lotuiya @lotuiya
    via twitter 11. April (2018?)

    Our community, our heritage! Only us (as the community) can leave a better tomorrow for our generations. Let us take advantage of the law, the government goodwill and the goodwill of organisations such as @KAS_Kenya to develop sustainable policies.

    h t t ps://twitter.com/lotuiya

    Sustainable Development Goals: Maximising the Benefits of Global Trade Liberalisation in Kenya through Legislative Reforms

    by Fridah Lotuiya

    h t t ps://sthem.mu.ac.ke/images/conference/11ICAbstracts.pdf

    Below is a verbatim of his statement received by Baringo News this morning. „Hello Baringo. I’m writing to give my personal rejoinder for the write up made by Hon Grace Kipchoim, Hon Kipruto Kimosop and Hon Advocate Fridah Lotuiya on the recent Peace efforts and meetings in Nyahururu and Tangulbei.

    h t t ps://www.facebook.com/BaringoNews/posts/deputy-speaker-ameja-selemoi-responds-to-the-calls-by-baringo-south-and-baringo-/1495615950484053/

    “ Baringo County Assembly Speaker David Kiplagat … his closest rival Fridah Lotuiyah … Ms Lotuiya is from the minority Endorois community. “

    https://www.nation.co.ke/counties/baringo/Baringo-Speaker-war-on-cattle-raids/3444812-4180336-3bo4cvz/index.html

    https://www.pressreader.com/kenya/daily-nation-kenya/20171110/281913068391786

    The Endorois are semi-nomadic pastoralists who were evicted from their ancestral land in and around Lake Bogoria in Kenya’s Rift Valley

    https://minorityrights.org/law-and-legal-cases/centre-for-minority-rights-development-minority-rights-group-international-and-endorois-welfare-council-on-behalf-of-the-endorois-community-v-kenya-the-endorois-case/

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    The girls from Endorois, Pokot and Ilchamus communities underwent the alternative rite of passage during the December holidays.

    Chiefs cite obstacles to anti-FGM drive | by Robert Kiplagat | STANDARD (Kenya) 17.02.2014

    https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2000104810/chiefs-cite-obstacles-to-anti-fgm-drive

    Among communities such as the Endorois, who live near the picturesque Lake Bogoria, the cutting season has endured. But the ban has driven it underground

    Kenyan ‚cutter‘ says female genital mutilation is her livelihood | the guardian 07.02.2014

    https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/feb/07/female-genital-mutilation-kenya-daughters-fgm

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    FGM yesterday 😦 → → HARAMBEE !!! → → No FGM tomorrow 🙂

  8. Adriaan Broekhuizen Says:

    Meru County, Kenia: 14 Jahre altes Mädchen nach FGM verblutet

    Die Jugendliche lebte in Igembe Central und wurde „beschnitten“ d. i. genital verstümmelt bei Vewandten in Ntunene, Igembe North

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    #MenENDFGM @TonyMwebia

    Sad News from #MeruCounty How many more until we say enough is enough. No other girl should become an #FGM statistic
    #EndFGM

    _ttps://twitter.com/TonyMwebia/status/1074925271638310913

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  9. Blame FGM and blame the Kenyan advocate of FGM Says:

    Baringo News · 20.11.2018 ·

    Blame not the education system; let’s interrogate ourselves

    Thoughts by Fridah Kiplagat

    We blame the education system for being unfair to our children, but do we stop and ask ourselves where it all came from? Let’s take a look at the just released KCPE examination results.

    We let our children feel that grade A is success while B is lesser success, while C is even much lesser success. But is this really the reality?

    For an exam which tests 5 subjects while there are thousands of careers out there? For a three day exam that is to be a cumulative outcome of over 9 years of study. What about that child who fell sick just before the exam? The one who learnt of the demise of a loved one just before a paper? The girl who had terrible cramps and inadequate sanitary towels? Will all these be shown on the leaving certificate?

    Sincere congratulations to all our children who excelled, excellence is good. Very good. But to our children who were fair, if you did your very best, don’t lose hope maybe your ability in not in the five tests they offered.

    To the parents, assist the kids to discover what they are good at, what they love, invest in them and they’ll ultimately excel.

    [Fridah Kiplagat is a lecturer at Moi University and an Advocate of the High Court].

    ___ps://www.facebook.com/BaringoNews/posts/blame-not-the-education-system-lets-interrogate-ourselvesthoughts-by-fridah-kipl/1965966150115695/

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    Law Journal (MULJ) – Moi University Schools of Law

    Ms. Frida Lotuiya: Lecturer, Moi University, School of Law;

    ___ps://law.mu.ac.ke/index.php/law-journal

    ___tps://law.mu.ac.ke/

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    Baringo News · 24. August 2017 ·

    CANDIDATES FOR BARINGO COUNTY ASSEMBLY SPEAKER SEAT: 18 HAVE SO FAR EXPRESSED INTEREST

    (…)

    Baringo South
    3. Fridah Lotuiya – Advocate & Lecturer

    (…)

    Baringo Central
    9. David Kerich – Advocate/Politician
    [ … “ David Kiplagat alias Kerich “ ]

    (…)

    ___ps://de-de.facebook.com/BaringoNews/posts/candidates-for-baringo-county-assembly/1480054528706862/

    ___p://tengesnipashe.blogspot.com/2017/08/list-of-those-eying-for-baringo.html

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    https://de-de.facebook.com/BaringoNews/posts/candidates-for-baringo-county-assembly/1480054528706862/

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    David Kiplagat Alias Kerich is now the second speaker of Baringo County assembly. He garnered 33 votes out of 45 against Fridah Lotuiya who got 11 votes.

    http://charleswang254.blogspot.com/2017/09/david-kerich-is-noe-duely-elected.html

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    Country Reports 2006 also mentions that FGM is usually performed on young girls and that even though non-governmental organizations and some churches provide shelter to those fleeing the practice, community elders often intervene to ensure that FGM is performed (US 6 Mar. 2007, Sec. 5). This source also indicates that women who have not undergone FGM are often socially stigmatized (ibid.). In April 2005, police officials removed 17 girls against their will from a shelter in Eldoret and returned them to their respective villages (ibid.). Country Reports 2006 also mentions that three years after they fled their homes to evade FGM, 20 other girls are still living in hiding with the assistance of a church (ibid.).

    Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Kenya: The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM); the prevalence of FGM among specific ethnic groups; state protection available to victims (2005 – October 2007), 25 October 2007, KEN102625.E, available at: https://www.refworld.org/docid/474e8954c.html [accessed 21 December 2018]

    https://www.refworld.org/docid/474e8954c.html

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  10. Adriaan Broekhuizen Says:

    Lotuiya, F. (2013)

    Challenges Faced in PSV Insurance Sector in Kenya: how adequate is the legal and the enforcement mechanism?

    Research submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master of Laws (LLM) Degree of the University of Nairobi

    Nairobi
    November 2014

    G62/68848/2011

    http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/76554/Thesis-%20Fridah%20Lotuiya%20Corrected%20copy.pdf?sequence=4

    ::

    name perhaps also Fridah Jepkoech Lotuiya …
    … see: Alumni | School of Law
    law-school.uonbi.ac . ke/node/1746
    “ LOTUIYA, Fridah Jepkoech “

    ::

  11. Edward von Roy Says:

    [ Baringo County Assembly Speaker David Kiplagat alias „Kipkerich or Loliondo“ ]

    .
    .

    One of the prevailing outcomes after the trainings for instance in Baringo is the increased awareness on GBV and FGM which has been implemented in Baringo South, Baringo North, Tiaty and Edama Ravine. Mapping of hotspots was conducted and 16 regions were identified as hotspots among them; Marigat, Ichamus, Mukutani, Churo Amaya, Tangubei, Kolowa, Tirioko, Silale, Mogotio, Kisanana, Emining, Bawesa, Bartabwa, Saimo, Kipsaramani, and Mochongoi and as a result 30 GBV networks were formed in these areas. The networks will address SGBV cases and refer them to FIDA Kenya.

    ERADICATING FGM · by FIDA KENYA · 13.02.2018

    https://www.fidakenya.org/news/eradicating-fgm/

    FIDA-K · Federation of Women Lawyers

    https://www.fidakenya.org/

    .
    .

    Rose Nyambura Gitahi. Socio-Cultural Constraints Facing Girl Child Education in Mochongoi Division of Baringo District.” IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), vol.8, no. 2, 2018, pp.47-52.

    4.2 Conclusion

    The findings show that the main socio-cultural factors that constraints girl child education in Mochongoi Division of Baringo District include early marriage, FGM (initiation), poor attitudes towards girls education, teenage pregnancies and domestic responsibilities.

    http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jrme/papers/Vol-8%20Issue-2/Version-2/E0802024752.pdf

    .
    .

    FRIDAH LOTUIYA (…) who is an advocate of the High Court and a resident of Mochongoi, Baringo South Sub-County

    – – – ps://www.facebook.com/BaringoNews/posts/fridah-lotuiya-concedes-defeat-accuses-jubilee-party-for-segregating-its-members/1491027140942934/

    .

    .
    .

    REPUBLIC OF KENYA
    BARINGO COUNTY GOVERNMENT
    ANNUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN
    2016/17

    Retrogressive cultural practices

    These practices include, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), early marriages, moranism and cattle rustling. FGM is practiced by some communities and there has been resistance to changedespite concerted efforts by government and other development partners. Girls undergoing FGM are in most cases married off early thus denying them an opportunity to attend school. (…)

    http://www.baringo.go.ke/images/downloads/Budget_Documents/Baringo_County_ADP_2016_2017.pdf

    .

    BARINGO COUNTY
    Office of the Governor, County Government of Baringo
    August 2013
    FIRST COUNTY INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2013–2017
    Page 43-44

    establishment of income-generating activities (IGAs) in boarding schools to support initiatives for child rescue from FGM and early marriages.

    http://www.baringo.go.ke/images/downloads/general/Baringo-County-Integrated-Dev-Plan-2013-2017-Final.pdf

    ·

  12. Adriaan Broekhuizen Says:

    Kenyan woman jailed for six years for circumcising twin daughters

    by Nita Bhalla, Thomson Reuters Foundation

    23.11.2018

    … from Tharaka-Nithi county …

    https://www.msn.com/en-xl/africa/top-stories/kenyan-woman-jailed-for-six-years-for-circumcising-twin-daughters/ar-BBQ2bT1

    .
    .

    Requête no. 536 de 2013
    Petition 536 of 2013

    Agnes Wanjiru Kiraithe & autres v Procureur General & 2 autres [2014] eKLR
    Agnes Wanjiru Kiraithe & another v Attorney General & 2 others

    […]

    Centre pour filles Soila Maasai («le Centre») qui est établi dans le but de sauver les filles face au risque de mutilation génitale féminine (MGF).
    Soila Maasai Girls Centre (“the Centre”) which is established with the objective of rescuing girls facing the risk of female genital mutilation (FGM). …

    En Avril 2013, le Centre a permis aux filles de réintégrer leurs familles. Les filles ont été autorisées à quitter le centre pour leurs foyers
    In April 2013, the Centre allowed the girls to re-integrate with their families. The girls were allowed to leave for their homes and upon return to the Centre …

    on a découvert que 49 filles avaient subi des MGF
    it was discovered that 49 girls had undergone FGM …

    http://national-cases.acerwc.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Kenya-Tribunal_de_Grande_Instance-Milimani-Agnes_Wanjiru_Kiraithe_and_other-2014-fr-1.pdf

    http://kenyalaw.org/caselaw/cases/view/98444

    .

  13. Cees van der Duin Says:

    [ Hargeysa oder Hargeisa (هرجيسا), übersetzt Klein-Harar, ist eine Stadt im Norden Somalias und gilt als Hauptstadt des seit 1991 de facto unabhängigen Somaliland. ]

    .

    by Khadar Iman ( Hargeisa, Somaliland ) @Iiman2030

    FGM arguments. There are two sides of the same coin –

    Two ideology: Zero Tolerance and continuity of FGM practices, there is no in between. The rests, somehow are baseless. It is invalid if you claim that you are advocating for FGM practice eradication by saying Sunna type is ok.

    00:03 – 26.12.2018

    _ttps://twitter.com/Iiman2030/status/1077837368315576320

    .

    .
    .

    Different communities have different names for FGM:

    Chad – the Ngama — Bagne
    Egypt — Thara / Khitan / Khifad
    Ethiopia — Megrez / Absum
    Eritrea — Mekhnishab
    Gambia — Niaka / Kuyango / Musolula Karoola
    Guinea-Bissau — Fanadu di Mindjer / Fanadu di Oni
    Kenya — Kutairi / Kutairi was ichana
    Nigeria — Ibi / Ugwu / Sunna
    Sierra Leone — Sunna / Bondo / Sonde
    Somalia — Gudiniin / Halalays / Qodiin
    Sudan — Khifad / Tahoor

    [ Buckinghamshire Safeguarding Children Board 2018 – author(s) of the text deny (or do not know) the Islamic responsability for FGM f. e. in the Shafii madhhab or amonge the Dawoodi Bohra ]

    http://www.bucks-lscb.org.uk/parents-carers/female-genital-mutilation-fgm/

    gudniin / qodiin
    Female genital mutilation / FGM

    FGM is also known as: circumcision; excision; gudniin; sunna; halalays; qodiin; khitan; thara; ibi ugwu; khifad; tahoor; absum; megrez; bondo; kutairi; mekhnishab; fanadu di mindjer; kuyango; and niaka.

    https://www.ifpa.ie/app/uploads/2018/05/IFPA-Womens-FGM-clinic-leaflet-English.pdf

    .

    [ Gudniin Sunna = chitan al-inath, Islamic FGM ]

    .

    “ Gudniin Sunna layidhaa ma jiro!!!!!!!! “

    ( by Khadar Iman @Iiman2030 )

    _ttps://twitter.com/Iiman2030/status/1077838604519510016

    .

  14. Edward von Roy Says:

    Senate Bill 214 would ban FGM

    #Ohio governor @JohnKasich signs #SB214 into law, banning #FGM in the state of Ohio @Ayaan

    .
    .

    Ohio Becomes 28th State to Criminalize FGM

    .

    05.12.2018 – STATE OF OHIO … To amend sections 504.04 and 504.13 of the Revised Code to … 2903.32 of the Revised Code to prohibit female genital mutilation. ….. of the Revised Code that is scheduled to take effect June 29, 2019, …

    h t t p://search-prod.lis.state.oh.us/cm_pub_api/api/unwrap/chamber/132nd_ga/ready_for_publication/committee_docs/cmte_s_rules_ref_1/submissions/cmte_s_rules_ref_1_2018-12-05-1100_1529/calendar1252018.pdf

    .

    Ohio General Assembly passes measure prohibiting female genital mutilation for girls under age 18

    Updated 20.12.1018 – posted 19.12.2018

    By Laura Hancock, cleveland.com

    COLUMBUS, Ohio – The Ohio General Assembly has sent to Gov. John Kasich a bill that would make it illegal to perform female genital mutilation on girls under age 18.

    Known by its initials of FGM, it is a ritual practice (…)

    https://www.cleveland.com/open/2018/12/ohio-general-assembly-passes-measure-prohibiting-female-genital-mutilation-for-girls-under-age-18.html

    .

    “Ohio is one of the few states in the Midwest that does not prohibit this,” said Sen. Lou Terhar, R-Cincinnati, a prime sponsor of Senate Bill 214, which the Senate passed unanimously Wednesday and sent to Gov. John Kasich for his signature.

    By Jim Siegel | Ohio legislature passes ban on female genital mutilation | The Columbus Dispatch | Posted 19.12.2018 Updated 20.12.2018

    https://www.dispatch.com/news/20181219/ohio-legislature-passes-ban-on-female-genital-mutilation

    .

  15. Edward von Roy Says:

    ·

    London 2019: FGM-Urteil am 8. März (International Women’s Day)

    Eine Frau, die ihre drei Jahre alte Tochter durch eine eigens bestellte (s. Global Citizen) sogenannte Beschneiderin genital verstümmeln ließ, ist die erste Person, die jemals in Großbritannien der FGM (weibliche Genitalverstümmelung) für schuldig befunden worden ist. Das Urteil wird für den 08.03.2019 erwartet (Weltfrauentag, Anm.).

    ·

    Die aus Uganda stammende Mutter (37) glaubt nicht nur an Notwendigkeit der FGM, sondern auch an allerlei ihr zur erfolgreichen Anwendung zur Verfügung stehende Zauberei oder Hexerei (Abwehrzauber, Schadzauber). In ihrer Wohnung in London hatte sie Spruchformeln und Fluchformeln ausgelegt, welche Polizei und Sozialarbeiter vom Untersuchen abhalten sollten (dazu vgl. b. Global Citizen die aufgeschnittenen Zitronen bzw. Limetten; im Bild bei BBC).

    Ihr männlicher Partner (43) ist durch die Jury freigesprochen worden.

    Die Mutter instruierte, drängte („coached“) ihre Tochter, der Polizei gegenüber zu lügen.

    Während die Eltern vor Gericht waren, durchsuchte die Polizei das Haus der Mutter und fand Anzeichen von „Hexenzauber, Hexerei“ (witchcraft).

    Prosecutor Caroline Carberry QC berichtet von zwei im Kühlschrank (s. u.) aufgefundenen Rinderzungen, Kuhzungen (cow tongues), „mit Nägeln durchstochen und mit Draht zusammengebunden, zusätzlich ein kleines stumpfes Messer“.

    Während der Verhandlung behauptete die Mutter, ihre Tochter sei bedauerlicherweise zu Boden und auf Metall gefallen und habe ihr Geschlechtsteil dabei verletzt, nachdem sie geklettert war, um an einen Keks heranzukommen (s. u., zur geringen Glaubwürdigkeit vgl. das Fehlen von Bluterguss bzw. Prellung).

    Krankenhausärzte hatten die Polizei alarmiert, nachdem das Mädchen mit beträchtlichem Blutverlust ins Whipps Cross Hospital (in Leytonstone) eingeliefert worden war.

    FGM: Mother guilty of genital mutilation of daughter · BBC 01.02.2019

    https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-47094707

    ·
    ·

    Die Mutter lebt in East London.

    Aufgrund fehlender Blutergüsse bzw. Prellungen vermutete Bashier Dawlatly, ein aus dem Sudan stammender Facharzt für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, weibliche Genitalverstümmelung, FGM.

    40 aufgeschnittene Zitrusfrüchte (s. Bild b. BBC: ordentlich in zehn Viererreihen) enthielten die Namen der Polizeibeamten, den Namen des Sozialarbeiters sowie den Namen des Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP). Die von der Notwendigkeit der FGM überzeugte Täterin glaubt, wie wir gesehen haben, zusätzlich an die Wirkmacht vom Bannen bzw. Verwünschen oder Verfluchen, an ihre Fähigkeit zu schwarzer Magie.

    3-Year-Old Girl in London Allegedly Subjected to FGM by ‚Witch‘ · „Brought to you by: Thomson Reuters Foundation“ · Global Citizen · 17.01.2019

    https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/london-fgm-female-genital-mutilation-case-witch/

    ·

  16. Jeremy Clifford Says:

    ‘Spells and curses’ found in home of woman in FGM case, court hears

    Ugandan woman and Ghanaian man, of east London, accused of failing to protect daughter

    the guardian
    16.01.2019

    https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/jan/16/spells-curses-found-home-woman-fgm-case-london-court-hears

    ::

    Mother becomes first person found guilty of FGM in UK

    … The Central Criminal Court confirmed to CNN that a 37-year-old Ugandan woman from Walthamstow, London, was found guilty of performing FGM on her daughter in summer 2017. …

    By Matthew Robinson, CNN
    01.02.2019

    https://edition.cnn.com/2019/02/01/europe/fgm-uk-court-case-scli-gbr-intl/index.html

  17. Edward von Roy Says:

    Sehr lesenswert in der taz zum Thema Kampf gegen FGM in Tansania und Kenia:

    ·

    Fluchtpunkt Masanga

    Von Ilona Eveleens, Afrika Korrespondentin

    Die Mädchen gehören zum Volk der Kuria. Der Aufstieg zum Erwachsensein wird bei ihnen traditionell mit der Beschneidung begangen. Bei Mädchen ist das gleichbedeutend mit einer Genitalverstümmelung [bei Jungen auch – Anm.]. (…)

    Das Kuria-Volk zählt etwa anderthalb Millionen Seelen, wovon ungefähr die eine Hälfte in Tansania und die andere in Kenia lebt. Rund 60 Prozent der Kuria-Mädchen zwischen 9 und 17 Jahren in Tansania sind beschnitten, unter ihren Müttern sind es sogar 98 Prozent, während der Prozentsatz für alle Tansanierinnen bei 10 Prozent liegt. Die Verstümmelung ist landesweit verboten. (…)

    http://www.taz.de/!5569222/

    ·

    Die Region Mara wird überwiegend von Kuria (auch Kurya oder AbaKurya) bewohnt.

    „Die Heiratstraditionen der Kuria haben auch für Kontroversen gesorgt, da vor allem ärmere Eltern, die auf den Brautpreis angewiesen sind, ihre Töchter oft früh in arrangierte Ehen geben. Die Beschneidung sowohl von Jungen als auch von Mädchen (in Form der Klitoridektomie) ist üblich.“

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mara_(Region)

    ·

    Circumcision

    Change from childhood to adulthood is an important Kurya ritual which transform individual to another stage of life. The change known as saro is a passage to adulthood. Every boy or girl must pass through saro to be recognised as an adult; otherwise, he is Mulisya or Mosagane.

    When one is circumcised he/she is placed into an age-set (esaro). It is not the purpose of this issue to describe the circumcision process but to emphasise the importance of the ritual. In Kurya society one is recognised by the age set group. All people circumcised at the same time are given an age set (saro). When a girl is married her age set group is changed to that of the husband if their saro are different. No one is allowed to marry children of same saros, all ceremonies are done on the basis of saro or amakora. One will not be allowed to marry or married if he has not gone through circumcision. In modern times boys are circumcised in hospitals and it is slowly being accepted but looked down as an inferior process. A real mkurya should face a mosali get circumcised without a wink.

    Traditionally, circumcision was done at the age around 13 years, but this differed significantly from one clan to another. The Abairege had most of their men circumcised at 15–18 years and above. However, this has changed to the onset of puberty. To this date, various organisations are working to ensure the tradition of female genital mutilation is aborted.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuria_people#Circumcision

    ·

  18. Edward von Roy Says:

    (A 37-year-old mother has been jailed after becoming the first person in the UK to be convicted of female genital mutilation, FGM.

    Mother jailed for female genital mutilation on three-year-old

    The Ugandan woman mutilated her three-year-old daughter at their family home in east London in 2017.

    She was jailed for 11 years for the FGM and a further two years for indecent images and extreme pornography. (…)

    BBC 08.03.2019

    https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-47502089


    Mother jailed for 11 years in first British FGM conviction

    The Guardian

    https://www.theguardian.com/society/2019/mar/08/mother-of-three-year-old-is-first-in-uk-to-be-convicted-of-fgm

    (De eerste verdachte die in Groot-Brittannië schuldig was bevonden aan vrouwenbesnijdenis, is nu veroordeeld tot een gevangenisstraf van elf jaar. De rechtbank houdt de 37-jarige Oegandese vrouw verantwoordelijk voor de genitale verminking van haar dochtertje in hun woning in Londen, bericht de BBC.)

    Moeder veroordeeld tot 11 jaar cel wegens genitale verminking van dochtertje.

    HNL ( Het Laatste Nieuws )

    https://www.hln.be/nieuws/buitenland/moeder-veroordeeld-tot-11-jaar-cel-wegens-genitale-verminking-van-dochtertje~aa3c71dc/

    Une mère condamnée pour avoir excisé sa fille

    Londres Mag (le plus londonien des magazines français)

    https://www.londresmag.com/2019/03/08/une-mere-de-37-ans-condamnee-pour-avoir-excise-sa-fille/

  19. Cees van der Duin Says:

    .

    35,000 boys get the cut without parental consent

    Gatonye Gathura | The Standard 10.08.2019

    About 35,000 underage boys have been circumcised without parental knowledge or consent in the ongoing HIV prevention drive.

    A study by Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) of US, reports that boys, some aged under 10 years, have been circumcised without the mandatory parental consent.

    The study, funded by the US government and published on August 2, 2019, says some of the children circumcised without parental consent were found to suffer depression related to the event.

    The team involving the University of North Carolina, US, had sampled 1,939 adolescents who went through the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in Western Kenya. (…)

    https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001337555/35-000-boys-get-the-cut-without-parental-consent

    .

    How unethical groups minted millions from anti-HIV male cut

    Gatonye Gathura | The Standard 10.11.2019

    (…) about 35,000 underage boys have been circumcised without parental knowledge or consent in the ongoing HIV prevention project.

    To get the numbers the new report says anything goes. “We are calling it ‘broking (brokering) system,” says a mobiliser.

    He said although they are not supposed to give children money they sometimes have to pay a boy about Sh50 for him to bring in his friends.

    “For instance, if he brings four, I give 100–150 KES. At the end of the day, I will hit my target,” says the mobiliser.

    But things get more interesting once the boys get to the clinic especially during the high seasons, usually during school holidays like now.

    The rule book says a circumcision team should incorporate one surgeon, a surgical assistant, a counselor and infection prevention officer all working together in each case.

    Such a team should on average do no more than 12 cuts a day. On average one case the report says should take 12 to 25 minutes.

    However during the peak season, the Kemri team says it confirmed these guidelines are not observed with an operation sometimes taking just about six minutes. (…)

    https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/health/article/2001348778/how-unethical-groups-minted-millions-from-anti-hiv-male-cut

    .

    Arrest NGO chiefs using children to get money from AIDs donors

    The Standard 12.11.2019

    (…) the US government-funded anti-HIV male circumcision project, which has circumcised more than 1.5 million males since it was rolled out in 2007.

    Through this project, community mobilisers are tasked with recruiting boys aged above 10, and they must volunteer for the cut.

    (…) Data collected by the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and US researchers that was published last week has exposed the high levels of corruption in the circumcision project, derailing the war against HIV and Aids.

    Project implementers, mostly non-governmental organisations, have opted to use underhand methods to boost the numbers of their clients and with this, increase the level of funding from the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

    The report shows that the project implementers recruit underage boys through coercion and bribery, sometimes without the consent of the boys’ parents. So far, about 35,000 boys have been circumcised without their parents’ consent.

    This is not only unethical, but it is also dishonest. (…)

    https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001349020/arrest-ngo-chiefs-using-children-to-get-money-from-aids-donors

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